A GAZETTEER OF VIRGINIA
By Henry Gannett


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE

Virginia is one of the easternmost States of the Union. It lies on the Atlantic seaboard between latitudes 36° 30' and 39°-' 30' and longitudes 75° and 84°. Its limits are very irregular, except on the south, and even there the boundary, though nominally a parallel of latitude, is actually by no means such a line.


From the Atlantic Ocean, just above the parallel of 38°, the boundary crosses the peninsula known as the Eastern Shore, which separates Chesapeake Bay from the Atlantic, in a direction south of west. Then, after a sinuous course among islands fringing the west coast of this peninsula, it crosses Chesapeake Bay to a point on the south side of the mouth of Potomac River. It follows the south bank of the Potomac at low-water line up to Harpers Ferry, where the river cuts through the Blue Ridge. Here the boundary leaves the river and makes a generally southwest course, with several jogs to the northwest, to a point near the head of the Tug Fork of the Big Sandy. From this point it follows a fairly constant southwest course, most of the way along the summit of Pine Mountain, to Cumberland Gap. Here it turns sharply to the east along a parallel which was originally intended to be 36° 30' north latitude. The line in reality, however, is from 2 to 6 minutes north of that parallel. This general eastern course it follows to the Atlantic coast.


Virginia was one of the original thirteen States. It adopted the Constitution on June 25, 1788. As admitted it comprised not only its present area but West Virginia and Kentucky. Kentucky was set off and admitted as an independent state June 1, 1792. During the civil war the counties forming what is now the State of West Virginia were admitted to the Union as an independent State, the admission taking effect June 19, 1863.


In 1791 the State ceded to the General Government a tract of country lying south of the Potomac and forming what is now the county of Alexandria, Va., as a portion of the District of Columbia, but in 1846 Congress receded this area to the State. The gross area of Virginia as at present constituted is 42,450 square miles, of which 40,125 is land area, the remainder consisting of land-locked bays and harbors, Drummond Lake, and rivers.


The topography is varied. Along the coast and extending for a varying distance inland the surface is low, being in few places over 200 feet above tide, and along the immediate coast much of the land is marshy. The rivers in this part of the State have the form of estuaries, are broad, with little current, and all streams of any magnitude are tidal. This region, commonly known as the Coastal Plain, is covered with soft cretaceous and tertiary rocks. Within it, in the southeast corner of the State, is the great Dismal Swamp, reaching an elevation nowhere more than 22 feet above mean sea level, and it is an almost impassable jungle of canebrake. In its center and upon its highest ground is Drummond Lake, an area of water 6 square miles in extent, without affluents, but drained by two or three artificial ditches.


The Coastal Plain is terminated on the west by what is called the "fall line." This is in the narrow zone in which the granitic rocks lying to the west pass below tide level. Over this fall line the streams from the Potomac to the south boundary of the State pass in a succession of rapids or falls due to the ledges of hard rock in the stream beds. This line is crossed by the Potomac at Georgetown, by the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, and by the James at Richmond. The mills at Manchester, opposite Richmond on the James, are run by water power from the rapids at this point.


Above the fall line is what is known as the Piedmont Plateau, a region in the main composed of metamorphic rocks, largely granite and allied rocks. This region is higher than the Coastal Plain, and the relief increases westward. The gorges of the streams become deeper and occasional short ridges appear, outliers of the Blue Ridge.


The Blue Ridge is the principal eastern range of the Appalachian Mountain system. It is crossed by the Potomac at Harpers Ferry, and from that point it extends southwestward, crossing the south boundary of the State in longitude 80° 50'. At Harpers Ferry it has a height of about 1,200 feet, but it increases southwestward, reaching 3,374 feet in Mount Marshall, 4,031 feet in Stonyman, and 4,001 feet in the Peaks of Otter. Farther southwest it has a plateau-like character, with a steep descent to the southeast and a gentle slope to the northwest. It is cut through by several streams, as stated above - by the Potomac at Harpers Ferry, and by the James and the Roanoke.

"West of the Blue Ridge lies the Appalachian Valley, whose northern part is drained toward the northeast by the Shenandoah, a branch of the Potomac, farther south by the headwaters of the James and the Roanoke, by New River, one of the principal sources of the Kanawha, which flows northwestward to the Ohio, and by the various branches of the Holston, which is one of the chief sources of Tennessee River. This valley is composed of many smaller valleys, separated by narrow, sinuous ridges, trending in the general direction of the main valley. These ridges are cut through at frequent intervals by streams, which thus pass from one secondary valley to another.


The highest point in the State is Mount Rogers, on the Blue Ridge, near the southern boundary.


The average elevation of the State above sea level is 950 feet. The areas between different zones of altitude are as follows:

Areas in Virginia at different altitudes.


Square miles. to 100 feet 9,700 100 to 500 feet 10,500 500 to 1,000 feet 5,950 1, 000 to 1, 500 feet 4,700 1, 500 to 2, 000 feet 4,200 2, 000 to 3, 000 feet 6,800 3, 000 to 4, 000 feet 600

The principal rivers of the State, after the Potomac, which can scarcely be said to belong to it, although it serves as an important means of communication and drains a considerable area, are the Rappahannock, the James, which is navigable nearly to Richmond, and the Roanoke, which is partly within the State, but is not navigable within its limits. The coast is everywhere low, that facing the Atlantic is sandy, and much of it is bordered by sand bars. The principal ports are Norfolk and Newport News, both with good harbors opening upon the foot of Chesapeake Bay.

Virginia lies within the temperate zone, in the region of the prevailing westerly winds. The mean annual temperature ranges from 50° in the northern and western or mountainous parts to 60° in the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont region. The annual rainfall, which is fairly well distributed through the year, ranges from 40 to 60 inches, most of the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont region having a rainfall between 45 and 50 inches, while in the mountains the precipitation is considerably greater.

Virginia was originally forested over nearly all of its area, but through clearing the land for cultivation and the cutting of timber for various economic purposes the amount of merchantable timber remaining is comparatively small. No estimate of it has, however, been made.

Virginia was one of the first States of the Union to be settled, and at the time of the first census, taken in 1790, it had a population of nearly three-fourths of a million, being at that time the most populous of all the States. The following table shows the population at each census and the rate pf increase:

Population of Virginia at each census since, 1790.

Table

The population is given for the State as it existed at the time of the census--that is, up to 1860 it included West Virginia, while since that time it includes only what is now within its limits. The rate of increase, however, has been computed upon the population which existed within the present limits of the State. In 1900, with a population of 1,854,184, it was the seventeenth State in number of inhabitants. Of the total population, only 14.6 per cent were found in cities having a population of 8,000 or more, and the remaining 85.4 per cent, or about six-sevenths of all the inhabitants are classed under this definition as rural. This proportion of rural population is much greater than that of the country at large. There are ten cities in the State each having a population exceeding 8,000. They are as follows:

Table

The above cities are independent of county government.

The State is divided into 100 counties. These with their areas and populations will be found in the general alphabetical list following.

In 1900 the population was very nearly equally divided between the sexes, the males constituting 49.9 per cent and the females 50.1 per cent. As to color, the proportions are 64.3 per cent white and 35.6 per cent colored. The colored are practically all negroes, as the number of Chinese, Japanese, and Indians is trifling. The white race increased in the decade between 1890 and 1900 at the rate of 16.9 per cent, while the negroes increased at the rate of only 4 per cent, owing to a movement of the negro population away from the State, probably southward. The population is nearly all of native birth, there being 99 per cent born in the United States and 1 per cent born abroad.

Of the total number of persons 10 years of age or more 22.9 per cent were unable to read, the most of them being negroes. Of the whites 10 years of age and over, only 11.1 per cent were illiterate. Of persons of school age, that is, between 5 and 20 years, 42 per cent attended school.

The total number of persons engaged in gainful occupations was 48.6 per cent of the entire population 10 years of age and over; that is to say, of this class, nearly one-half were engaged in gainful occupations. Of this class of wage-earners 45.3 per cent were engaged in agriculture, 3.2 per cent in professional pursuits, 23.6 per cent in domestic and other personal service, 11.2 per cent in trade and transportation, and 16.7 per cent in manufactures and mining. It thus appears that agriculture is the principal occupation of the people of the State, the number engaged in it being nearly one-half of all the wage-earners, and nearly twice as great as the number engaged in any other pursuit.

Virginia is preeminently an agricultural State, although it has some manufactures of importance. In 1900 the number of farms was 167,886, of which 73.3 per cent, or nearly three-fourths, were occupied by white farmers, while the remainder, 26.7 per cent, were occupied by negroes. As to tenure, 69.3 per cent, or nearly seven-tenths, of the farms in the State were owned by their occupants, 9.9 per cent were rented for a cash rental, and 20.8 per cent were rented for a share of the products. A much larger proportion of the negro farmers were tenants than of the white farmers, and as a rule the negro tenants pay their rent by a share of the product.

The total area of farms was 19,907,883 acres. The average size of farms was 118.6 acres, being considerably less than the average of the United States. The total amount of improved land was 10,094,805 acres, or little more than one-half the total area of farms, and 39.3 per cent of the total area of the State; in other words, about two-fifths of the State was under cultivation.

The value of all farm property was $323,515,997. This includes the etc., in short, the total farming capital. The average of this per farm was $1,927. The total value of the products of the farms was 186,548,645. This is between 26 and 27 per cent of the farming capital.

The following table shows the number of different classes of live stock upon farms in the State:

Live stock in Virginia.

Neat cattle 825,512 Horses 298,522 Mules 47,474 Sheep 692,929 Swine 946,443

The following table shows the amount of the principal agricultural products:

Statistics of agricultural products in Virginia.

Dairy products dollars. 7,000,000 Corn bushels. 1,910,000 Wheat bushels. 927,266 Oats bushels. 275,394 Hay tons. 612,962 Tobacco pounds. 122,884,900

In the product of tobacco this State is exceeded only by Kentucky and North Carolina, and the excess of the product of the latter State over Virginia is but trifling.

As a manufacturing State, Virginia does not take high rank, but with her rich deposits of excellent coking coal and of iron, it is probable that manufacturing will greatly increase in future years. General statistics of the manufacturing industry in 1900 are set forth in the following table:

Statistics of manufacturing in Virginia.

Manufacturing capital |103, 670, 988 Wage-earners • number. . 72, 702 Wages 122,445,720 Materials '. $74, 851 , 757 Products 1132, 172, 910

The above gross product of manufactures was made up in part of the following items:

Principal classes of manufactures in Virginia in 1900.

Cars, etc. $6,277,279 Flour 12,687,267 Iron and steel 8,341,888 Lumber 12,137,177 Lumber planing mills 2,686,898 All textiles 3,282,583 Cotton goods 2,655,002 Tobacco $21,278,266 Fertilizers 3,415,850 Foundry and machine-shop products 4,833,137 Leather 4,716,920

The above are the leading manufacturing products of the State and include three-fifths of all the manufactures.

In 1902 the State included 3,832 miles of railway, or 9.55 miles for each 100 square miles, and 19.98 miles for each 10,000 inhabitants. The railways of the State are, in the main, included in the five following systems: Southern, Chesapeake and Ohio, Atlantic Coast Line, Norfolk and Western, and Baltimore and Ohio.

The principal mineral products are coal and iron ore, both of which are found chiefly in the southwestern mountainous portion of the State. The coal production in 1901 was 2,725,873 short tons, and the amount of coke produced was 907,130 short tons. In the States of Virginia and West Virginia there were produced in the same year 926,394 long tons of iron ore. The production of Virginia can not be given separately. There were smelted within the State of Virginia in that year 443,662 long tons of pig iron. Besides the above, 4,275 tons of manganese ore were mined.



GAZETTEER

Aaron; post village in Carroll County.

Aaron; creek, small right-hand branch of Dan River in Halifax County.

Abbie; post village in Carroll County.

Abbott; post village in Craig County.

Abbs; valley in Tazewell County.

Abbyville; post village in Mecklenburg County.

Abell; post village in Charlotte County.

Abercorn; post village in Amelia County.

Abert; post village in Bedford County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Abilene; post village in Charlotte County.

Abingdon; county seat of Washington County, on the Norfolk and Western and the Virginia-Carolina railroads. Altitude, 2,057 feet. Population, 1,306.

Abner Knob; summit in Montgomery County. Elevation, 2,838 feet.

Abraham; post village in Floyd County.

Abrams; creek, a small left-hand tributary to North Fork of Holston River, which rises in Washington County.

Abrams; creek, a small left-hand tributary of Shenandoah River in Frederick County.

Abrams Palls; post village in Washington County.

Abrams Mount; summit in Rockingham County.

Acadia; village in Lee County.

Accakeek; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Potomac River in Stafford County.

ACCOMAC; county, situated on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. The surface is low and level, and much of it, especially near the coast on either side, is marshy. It is but little elevated above tide. The area is 478 square miles. Population, 32,570—white, 20,743; negro, 11,825; foreign born, 65. County seat, Accomac. The mean magnetic dechnation in 1900 was 4° 35'. The mean annual rainfall is 40 to 50 inches, and the temperature 55° to 60°. The county is traversed by the New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk Railroad.

Accomac; county seat of Accomac County.

Accotink; post village in Fairfax County on tlie Washington Southern Railroad.

Accotink; creek, a small right-hand tributary of Potomac River in Fairfax County.

Accotink; bay, an arm of Potomac River in Fairfax County.

Achilles; post village in Gloucester County.

Acorn; post village in Halifax County.

Acteon; post village in Prince Edward County.

Ada; post village in Fauquier County.

Adamsgrove; post village in Southampton County on the Southern Railway.

Adains; peak in South Mountain. Elevation, 2,990.

Adelphia; post village in Scott County.

Aden; post village in Prince William County.

Adial; post village in Nelson County.

Adlai; post village in Augusta County.

Admant; post village in Lee County.

Adner; post village in Gloucester County.

Adney; gap in Blue Eidge, Franklin County.

Adonis; post village in Halifax County.

Adria; post village in Tazewell County.

Adriance; post village in Cumberland County.

Advance Mills; post village in Albemarle County.

Adwolf; village in Smyth County.

Afton; post village in Nelson County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Elevation, 1,407 feet.

Agee; post village in Nelson County.

Agnewville; post village in Prince William County.

Aguste; post village in Isle of Wight County.

Ahala; post village in Orange County.

Aid; post village in Caroline County.

Aidyl; post village in Southampton County.

Aiken; swamp in Chesterfield County on James River.

Ally; post village in Dickenson County.

Airfield; post village in Southampton County.

Airmont; post village in Loudoun County.

Airpoint; post village in Roanoke County.

Aittlers; run, a small left-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Frederick County.

Aivland'r post village in Sussex County.

Ajax; post village in Pittsylvania County on the Southern Railway.

Alanthus; post village in Culpeper County.

Albano; post village in Orange County.

ALBEMARLE; county, situated in the central part of the State in the Piedmont region and extends on the west to the summit of the Blue Ridge, there having an altitude in the summits of 3,000 feet. The county is traversed by a number of short ridges parallel to the Blue Ridge. In altitude its surface ranges from 300 to 3,000 feet. The area is 755 square miles. Population, 28,473—white, 18,135; negro, 10,337; foreign born, 214. Court-house located in Charlottesville. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 3°. The mean anriual rainfall is 40 to . 50 inches, and the temperature 55° to 60°. The county is traversed by the Chesapeake and Ohio and the Southern railways.

Albemarle and Chesapeake; canal, extending from the mouth of Southern Branch of Elizabeth River to North Landing River in Norfolk County.

Alberene; post village in Albemarle County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Albin; post village in Frederick County.

Albro; creek, a small right-hand branch of James River in Chesterfield County.

Alchie; post village in Halifax County.

Alcoma; post village in Buckingham County.

Alden; post village in King George County.

Alderman; post village in Floyd County.

Aldie; post village in Loudoun County.

Alean; post village in Franklin County.

ALEXANDRIA; county, situated in the eastern part of the State along Potomac River, opposite the District of Columbia. It has a rolling surface, ranging from sea level to 400 feet. The chief city within its limits is Alexandria, formerly the county seat, but now independent in government. Area, 32 square miles. Population, 6,430—white, 3,963; negro, 2,467; foreign born, 294. County seat. Fort Myer. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 4° 30'. The mean annual rainfall is 40 to 50 inches, and the temperature 55°.
Alexandria; city, independent, with a population of 14,528, on the Baltimore and Ohio, the Chesapeake and Ohio, the Southern, the Washington, Alexandria and Mount Vernon Electric, and the Washington Southern railroads.

Alex; run, a small rrght-hand tributary of James River in Botetourt County.

Alfonso; post village in Lancaster County.

Alfred; post village in Albemarle County.

Alfred; fork, a small right-hand branch of Knox Creek in Buchanan County.

Algoma; village in Franklin County.

Alhambra; post village in Nelson County.

ALLEGHANY; county, situated in the western part of the State in the Appalachian
Valley. The surface consists of a close alternation of sandstone ridges and limestone valleys. It is drained by numerous small streams of James River. Area, 452 square miles. Population, 16,330—white, 12,315; negro, 4,013; foreign born, 168. County seat, Covington. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 1° 45'. The mean annual rainfall is 50 to 60 inches, and the temperature 50° to "60°. The county is traversed by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Alleghany; tunnel in Alleghany Mountains on the State line in Greenbriar and Alleghany counties. Altitude, 2,068 feet.

Alleghany Spring; post village in Montgomery County.

Alleghany Station; post village in Alleghany County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 2,056 feet.

Allegheny Front; the eastern escarpment of the Allegheny Plateau, traversing Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Elevation ill Virginia ranges from 2, 000 to 4,000 feet.

Allen; creek, a small left-hand branch of James River in Amherst and Nelson counties.

Allen; mountains in Greene County. Elevation, 1,000 to 1,500 feet.

Allenscreek; post village in Amherst County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Allenslevel; post village in Buckingham County.

Alley; post village in Scott County.

Alliance; post village in Surry County.

Allisonia; post village in Pulaski County on the Norfolk and Western Railway.

Allmondsville; post village in Gloucester County.

Allwood; post village in Amherst County.

Alma; post village in Page County.

Almagro; post village in Pittsylvania County.

Almond; village in Rockingham County.

Alone; post village in Rockbridge County.

Alonzaville; post village in Shenandoah County.

Alpha; post village in Buckingham County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Alphin; post village in Rockbridge County.

Alrich; post village in Spottsylvania County on the Potomac, Fredericksburg and Piedmont Railroad.

Althea; post village in Campbell County.

Alto; post village in Amherst County.

Alton; post village in Halifax County on the Southern Railway.

Altoona; mines in Pulaski County.

Alumine; post village in Franklin County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 881 feet.

Alumridge; post village in Floyd County.

Alum; springs in Rockbridge County.

Alumwells; post village in Washington County.

Alvah; post village in Henry County.

Alvarado; post village in Washington County.

Amaryllis; post village in Louisa County.

Ambar; post village in King George County.

Ambiirg; post village in Middlesex County.

AMELIA; county, situated in the central part of the State in the Piedmont region. It has an undulating surface, ranging in altitude from 300 to 500 feet. Area, 355 square miles. Population, 9,037—white, 3,052; negro, 5,985; foreign bom, 50. County seat, Amelia. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 3° 15'. The mean annual rainfall is 40 to 50 inches, and the temperature 55° to 60°. The county is traversed by the Southern Railway.

Amelia; county seat of Amelia County on the Southern Railway. Altitude, 361 feet.

AMHERST; county, situated in the central part of the State in the Piedmont region, its western boundary being the summit of the Blue Ridge. Its surface is somewhat broken by short ridges and isolated summits, outliers of the Blue Ridge. It is drained by James River. The altitude ranges from 500 feet up to 3,000 in the summits 6t the Blue Ridge. Area, 464 square miles. Population, 17,864--white, 10,807; negro, 7,057; foreign born, 70. County seat, Amherst. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 3° 10'. The mean annual rainfall is 40 to 50 inches, and the temperature 50° to 60°. The county is traversed by the Southern and the Chesapeake and Ohio railways.

Amherst; county seat of Amherst County on the Southern Railway. Altitude, 629 feet.

Amicus; post village in Greene County.

Amissville; post village in Rappahannock County.

Ammon; post village in Amelia County.

Amos; creek, a small tributary to Copper Creek in Scott County.

Amos; post village in Floyd County.

Amsterdam; post village in Botetourt County.

Amy; post village in Amherst County.

Ancella; post village in Grayson County.

Anchor; post village in Surry County.

Anderson; post village in Augusta County on the Big Stony Railway.

Andersonville; post village in Buckingham County.

Andrews; post village in Spottsylvania County.

Angels Best; mountain in Giles County. Elevation, 3,600 feet.

Angola; creek, a small left-hand branch of Appomattox River in Cumberland County.

Angola; post village in Cumberland County.

Ann; post village in Lee County.

Annandale; post village in Fairfax County.

Annex; post village in Augusta County.

Anstelle; post village in Botetourt County.

Ante; post village in Brunswick County.

Antelope; post village in Rockingham County.

Anthony Knobs; summits in Botetourt County. Elevation, 1,500 to 2,500 feet.

Anthony Mill; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Roanoke River in Bedford County.

Anthony; ferry over Roanoke River in Pittsylvania County.

Anthony; ford in Roanoke River in Franklin County.

Antioch; post village in Fluvanna County on Farmville and Powhatan Railroad. Altitude, 487 feet.

Antlers; post village in Mecklenburg County.

Appalachia; post village in Wise County on the Interstate and the Louisville and Nashville railroads.

Appleberry; mountains in Albemarle County. Elevation, 1,000 to 1,500 feet.

Applegrove; post village in Louisa County.

Apple Orchard; summits in Botetourt County.

Appold; post village in Botetourt County.

APPOMATTOX; county, situated in the southern part of the State in the Piedmont region. It has an undulating surface, with an altitude ranging from 400 to 800 feet. It is drained by James and Roanoke rivers; area, 342 square miles. Population, 9,662—white, 5,731; negro, 3,931; foreign born, 15. County seat, West.

Appomattox. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 2° 30'. The mean annual rainfall is 50 to 60 inches, and the temperature 55° to eO'". The county is traversed by the Norfolk and Western Railway.

Appomattox; post village in Appomattox County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 825 feet.

Appomattox; river which heads in the Piedmont region and flows in a sinuous eastward course to its junction with the James. Length, 130 miles; navigable to Petersburg.

Aqua; post village in Rockbridge County.

Aquia; creek, a small right-hand branch of Potomac River in Stafford County.

Aral; post village in Carroll County.

Ararat; post village in Patrick County.

Ararat; river, a left-hand branch of Yadkin Kiver, rising in Patrick County.

Arhorhill; post village in Augusta County.

Arbutus; post village in Grayson County.

Arcanum; post village in Buckingham County.

Archer Knob; summit in North Mountain.

Archie; post village in Culpeper County.

Arch Mills; post village in Botetourt County.

Arco; post village in Warren County.

Areola; post village in Loudoun County.

Arcturus; village in Fairfax County on the Washington, Alexandria and Mount Vernon Electric Railway.

Ark; post -village in Gloucester County.

Arkton; village in Rockingham County.

Arlington; post village in Alexandria County on the Washington, Alexandria and Mount Vernon Electric Railway.

Armel; post village in Frederick County.

Armstrong; post village in Bath Cotmty.

Arnold; creek, a small right-hand branch of James River in Rockbridge County.

Arnold; valley in the southern part of Rockbridge County.

Arringdale; post village in Southampton County on the Southern Railway.

Arrington; post village in Nelson County on the Southern Railway. Altitude, 692 feet.

Arritts; post village in Alleghany County.

Arthur; marshy creek tributary to Rowanty Creek, a swamp in Dinwiddle County.

Artrip; post village in Russell County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 1,560 feet.

Arvonia; post village in Buckingham County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Asberrys; post village in Tazewell County.

Ashburn; post village in Loudoun County.

Ashby; gap in the Blue Ridge in Clarke County.

Ashby; post village in Cumberland County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 597 feet.

Ashcake; post village in Hanover County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 199 feet.

Ash Camp; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Roanoke River in Charlotte County.

Ashgrove; post village in Fairfax County.

Ash. Hollow; run, a small left-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Frederick County.

Ashland; town in Hanover County on the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad. Population, 1,147. Altitude, 221 feet.

Ashton; creek, a small right-hand tributary to James River in Chesterfield County.

Aspenview; post village in Brunswick County.

Aspenwall; post, village in Charlotte County.

Assamoosick; creek, a left-hand branch of Nottoway River in southeast Virginia.

Assamoosick; post village in Southampton County.

Assawoman; post village in Accomac County.

Athlone; village in Rockingham County.

Athos; post village in Orange County.

Atkins; post village in Smyth County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 2,279 feet.

Atlantic; post village in Accomac County.

Atlas; post village in Pittsylvania County.

Atlee; post village in Hanover County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 202 feet.

Atoka; post village in Fauquier County.

Attoway; post village in Smyth County.

Aubum; post village in Fauquier County.

Auburn ISills; post village in Hanover County.

AUGUSTA; county, situated in the western part of the State in the Appalachian Valley, its eastern boundary being the summit of the Blue Ridge; its surface is undulating and but little broken. It is drained mainly northward into branches of Shenandoah River. The altitude ranges from 1,200 to 4,500 feet in Elliott Knob. Area, 1,012 square miles. Population, 32,370—whites, 26,670; negro, 5,700; foreign born, 107. County seat, Staunton. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 2° 15'. The mean annual rainfall is 50 to 60 inches, and the temperature 50 to 55°. The county is traversed by the Baltimore and Ohio, the Chesapeake and Ohio, and the Norfolk and Western railroads.

Augusta Spring's; post village in Augusta County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Augusta White Sulphur; springs in Augusta County.

Austin.; creek, a small right-hand tributary to James River in Buckingham County.

Austin; run, a small right-hand tributary to Potomac River in Stafford County.

Austinville; post village in Wythe County on the Norfolk and Western Railway.

Autumn; post village in Scott County.

Avalon; post village in Northumberland County.

Averett; post village in Mecklenburg County.

Avis; post village in Augusta County.

Avon; post village in Nelson County.

Axtell; post village in Buckingham County on the Danville and Western Railway.

Azton; post village in Henry County on the Danville and Western Railway. Altitude, 1,020 feet.

Ayers; post village in Scott County.

Aylett; post village in King William County.

Aylmer; post village in Nelson County.

Azen; post village in Washington County.

Bachelors Hall; post village in Pittyslvania County.

Back; bay, a lagoon on the southeast coast, separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a sand bar.

Back; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Goose Creek in Campbell County.

Back; creek, a small right-hand branch of Jackson River in Highland County.

Back; creek, a left-hand tributary of James River in Bath and Highland counties.

Back; creek, a small left-hand tributary to James River in Rockbridge County.

Back; creek, a small right-hand tributary to James River in Botetourt County.

Back; creek, a small right-hand branch of Potomac River in Frederick County, Va., and Berkeley County, W. Va.

Back; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Roanoke River in Roanoke County.

Back; creek, a right-hand branch of Roanoke River in Roanoke County.

Back; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Augusta County.

Back; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Augusta County.

Back; run, a small left-hand branch of James River in Rockbridge County.

Backbay: post village in Princess Anne County on the Norfolk and Southern Railroad.

Backbone; post village in Alleghany County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 1,670 feet.

Back Creek; mountains in Botetourt County. Elevation, 2,000 feet.

Back Creek; mountains in Highland and Bath counties. Elevation, 2,000 to 4,000 feet.

Bacon; post village in James City County.

Bacons Castle; post village in Surry County.

Baffle; post village in Southampton County.

Bagby; post village in Caroline County.

Bagleys Mills; post village in Lunenburg County.

Bailey; creek, a small left-hand branch of James River in Henrico County.

Bailey; creek, a small right-hand tributary to James River in Prince George County.

Bailey; post village in Tazewell County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 2,600 feet.

Bailey; mountain in Nelson County.

Bailey Crossroads; post village in Fairfax County.

Baileyville; post village in Charlotte County.

Baker; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Augusta County.

Baker; mountain in Prince Edward County.

Baker Mines; post village in Carroll County.

Bakers Mill; village in Rockingham County.

Balcony Falls; post village in Rockbridge County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 712 feet.

Bald; mountain in Craig County. Elevation, 1,500 to 2,500 feet.

Bald; mountain ridge in Augusta County. Elevation, 3,000 to 4,000 feet.

Bald Knot); summit in Amherst County.

Bald Knob; summit in Appomattox County.

Bald Knob; summit in Augusta County. Elevation, 4,410 feet.

Bald Knob; summit in Franklin County. Elevation, 1,421 feet.

Bald Knob; summit in Salt Pond Mountain in Giles County. Elevation, 4,348 feet.

Bald Knob; summit in Warm Spring Mountain. Elevation, 4,245 feet.

Baldwin; ridge in Fauquier County. Elevation, 500 feet.

Baldwin Station; post village in Botetourt County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 970 feet.

Bales; post village in Lee County.

Balham; post village in Goochland County.

Ball; mountain in Nelson County.

Ballard; post village in Patrick County.

Ballinger; creek, a small left-hand tributary to James River in Fluvanna County.

Ballinger; creek, a small lef1>hand branch of James Eiver in Albemarle County.

Ball Koom; mountain in Nelson County.

Ballston; post village in Alexandria County.

Ballsville; post village in Powhatan County on the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad. Altitude, 397 feet.

Baity; post village in Caroline County.

Banco; post village in Madison County.

Bandana; post village in Hanover County.

Bandy; post village in Tazewell County.

Bane; post village in Giles County.

Banister; left-hand branch of Dan River in Pittsylvania and Halifax counties.

Banister; post village in Pittsylvania County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 364 feet.

Banks; mountain in Madison County.

Banks; post village in Essex County.

Banks Mountain; summit in Amherst County. Elevation, 2,000 feet.

Banner; post village in Wise County.

Baptist; valley in Tazewell County.

Baptist Valley; post village in Tazewell County.

Barb; post village in Shenandoah County.

Barbers; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Jackson River in Craig County.

Barbett; creek, a small right-hand tributary to New River in Carroll County.

Barbett Knob; summit in Carroll County. Elevation, 3,034 feet.

Barboursville; post village in Orange County on the Southern Railway.

Barcroft; post village in Alexandria County on the Southern Railway.

Barden; run, a small right-hand tributary to James River in Botetourt County.

Bare; mountain, summit in Augusta County.

Barhamsville; post village in New Kent County.

Bark Camp; small right-hand branch of New River in Pulaski County.

Barker Mill; pond in Hanover County on Elder Creek.

Barley; post village in Greenesville County.

Barlow; village in Lee County.

Barnesville; post village in Charlotte County.

Barnett; village in Russell County.

Barnhardt; creek, a small right-hand branch of Roanoke River in Roanoke County.

Barque; post village in Campbell County.

Barrel; point of land in Isle of Wight County, extending into James River.

Barrenridge; post village in Augusta County.

Barren Springs; post village in Wythe County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 1,908 feet.

Barrmoor; post village in Smyth County.

Barrows Mill; village in Henry County.

Barrows Store'; post village in Brunswick County.

Bartee; post village in Norfolk County.

Barterbrook; post village in Augusta County.

Barton Heights; town in Henrico County. Population, 763.

Basham; post village in Floyd County.

Basic City; town in Augusta County on the Chesapeake and Ohio and the Norfolk and Western railways. Population, 1,270.

Baskerville; post village in Mecklenburg County on the Southern Railway.

Bass; creek, a small left-hand branch of Appomattox River in Chesterfield County.

Basses; post village in Halifax County.

Bassetts; post village in Henry County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 740 feet.

Bassil; post village in Patrick County.

Bateman; post village in Patrick County.

Batesville; post village in Albemarle County.

BATH; county, situated in the western part of the State in the Appalachian Valley. Its surface consists of an alternation of sandstone ridges and limestor'e valleys. It is drained by branches of James Eiver. The altitude ranges from 1,100 up to 4,000 feet. Area, 548 square miles. Population, 5,595—white, 4,589; negro, 1,006; foreign bom, 66. County seat, Warm Springs. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 2° 15'. The mean annual rainfall is 50 to 60 inches, and the temperature 50° to 55°. The county is traversed by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.

Batna; post village in Culpeper County.

Batt; post village in Gloucester County.

Batten; post village in Isle of Wight County.

Battersea; canal in Dinwiddle County extending along Appomattox River.

Battery; post village in Essex County.

Battery; creek, a small right-hand branch of James River in Bedford County.

Batterypark; post village in Isle of Wight County.

Battle; run, a small right-hand tributary to Rappahannock River in Rappahannock County.

Battle; mountains in Rappahannock County. Elevation, 1,000 feet.

Battlehill; post village in Roanoke County.

Bay; post village in Floyd County.

Bayard; post village in Warren County.

Bayford; post village in Northampton County.

Baylor; post village in Grayson County.

Baynesville; post village in Westmoreland County.

Bayon; post village in Halifax County.

Bayport; post village in Middlesex County.

Bays Mill; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Augusta County.

Bayview; post village in Northampton County.

Baywood; post village in Grayson County.

Beach; post village in Chesterfield County on the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad. Altitude, 283 feet.

Beachem; run, a small right-hand tributary to Chickahominy River in Henrico County.

Beachland; post village in Surry County.

Beacon Quarter; branch, a small left-hand tributary to James River in Henrico County.

Beagle; gap in the Blue Ridge in Augusta County.

Beahm; post village in Page County.

Bealeton; post village in Fauquier County on the Southern Railway. Altitude, 290 feet.

Beamer Knob; summit in Carroll County. Elevation, 3,400 feet.

Beamon; post village in Nansemond County on the Southern Railway.

Bean; branch, a small right-hand tributary to Potomac River in Fauquier County.

Bear; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Guest River in Wise County.

Bear; creek, a small right-hand branch of Middle Fork of Holston River in Smyth County.

Bear; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Roanoke River in Campbell County.

Bear; mountain in Amherst County. Elevation, 1,500 feet.

Bear; mountain in Augusta County. Elevation, 2,500 feet.

Bear; mountain in Highland County.

Beard; mountains in Bath County. Elevation, 1,500 to 2,500 feet.

Bear Garden; creek, a small right-hand branch of James River in Buckingham County.

Bear Garden; run, a small right-hand tributary to Potomac River in Frederick County.

Bear Lithia; post village in Rockingham County.

Bear Pen; small left-hand branch of Pigeon Creek in Wise County.

Beartown; mountain in Russell County. Elevation, 4,710 feet.

Bearwallow; mountain in Buchanan County. Altitude, 3,170 feet.

Bearwallow; post village in Buchanan County.

Bear Wallow; run, a small right-hand tributary to James River in Botetourt County.

Beauford; post village in Floyd County.

Beautiful; run, a small left-hand tributary to Rapidan River in Madison County.

Beaver; branch, a small right-hand tributary to New River in Grayson County.

Beaver; small righ1>hand branch of Cripple Creek in Wythe County.

Beaver; creek, a left-hand tributary to Dan River in Henry County.

Beaver; creek, a small left-hand tributary to James River in Amherst County.

Beaver; creek, a small right-hand branch of James River in Campbell County.

Beaver; creek, a small righf-hand tributary to New River in Grayson and Carroll counties.

Beaver; creek, a small left-hand branch of North Fork of Holston River in Smyth County.

Beaver; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Shenandoah River in Rockingham County.

Beaver; fork, a small tributary to Botetourt River in Tazewell County.

Beaverdam; post village in Hanover County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 282 feet.

Beaverdam; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Potomac River in Loudoun County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand branch of Chickahominy River in Hanover County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand branch of James River in Goochland County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand tributary to James River in Louisa County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small right-hand tributary to New River in Carroll County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small right-hand tributary to New River in Floyd County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand tributary to New Eiver in Wythe County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Powell River in Wise County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand branch of Roanoke River in Bedford County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand tributary to South Fork of Holston River in Washington County.

Beaverdam; creek, a small left-hand tributary to York River in Hanover County.

Beaverdam Mills; post village in Hanover County.

Beaverpond; branch, a small left-hand tributary to Roanoke River in Campbell County.

Beaverpond; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Nottoway River in Dinwiddle County.

Beaverpond; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Appomattox River in Amelia County.

Beaverpond; post village in Amelia County.

Beazley; ford across Ducker Creek in Buckingham County.

Beazley; post village in Essex County.

Beck; post village in Prince Edward County.

Beckham; post village in Appomattox County.

Beckner; gap in Catawba Mountains, caused by Mason Creek, in Roanoke County.

Beck Ridge; mountains extending from Washington County, Va., into Sullivan County, Tenn.

Becky; creek, a small right-hand branch of Roanoke River in Franklin County.

BEDFORD; county, situated in the southern part of the State in the upper part of the Piedmont region, and consisting of a rolling and somewhat broken country, with numerous short ridges, which are outliers of the Blue Ridge, in the upper part of the county. It is drained by Roanoke River and its tributaries. The altitude ranges from 600 up to 4,000 feet in the Peaks of Otter, which forms the northwestern limit of the county. Area, 729 square miles. Population, 30,356 white, 20,617; negro, 9,739; foreign born, 71. County seat, Bedford City. The mean magnetic declination in 1900 was 2°. The mean annual rainfall is 50 to 60 inches, and the temperature 55° to 60°. The county is traversed by the Norfolk and Western Railway.

Bedford City; county seat of Bedford County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Population, 2,416.

Bedford Springs; post village in Campbell County.

Bee; small right-hand branch of Slate Creek in Buchanan County.

Bee; post village in Dickenson County.

Beech; creek, a small left-hand tributary to Dry Fork, rising in Tazewell County.

Beech Lick Knob; summit in Rockingham County. Elevation, 3,000 feet.

Beechnut; post village in Mecklenburg County.

Beechspring; village in Lee County.

Beechtree; creek, a small right-hand branch of Roanoke River in Pittsylvania County.

Beesville; post village in Buckingham County.

Beliams ; gap in the Blue Ridge in Rappahannock County.

Belamar; post village in Hanover County.

Beldor; post village in Rockingham County.

Belfast Mills ; post village in Russell County.

Belfield; post village in Greenesville County.

Belgrade; post village in Shenandoah County.

Belinda; post village in Accomac County.

Bell; creek, a small right-hand tributary to Appomattox River in Prince Edward County.

Bellamy; post village in Scott County.

Bellbranch; post village in Buckingham County.

Belle; small island in James River in Henrico County.

Belle Coe; creek, a small left-hand tributary to James River in Rockbridge County.

Belle Hampton; post village in Pulaski County.

Bellehaven; town in Accomac County. Population, 331.

Bellevue; post village in Bedford County on the Norfolk and Western Railway. Altitude, 848 feet.

Bellfair Mills; post village in Stafford County.

Bells; post village in Bedford County.

Bells Crossroads; post village in Louisa County.

Bells Valley; post village in Rockbridge County on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Altitude, 1,507 feet.

Belmont; bay, an arm of Potomac River extending into Prince William and Fairfax counties.

Belmont; post village in Spottsylvania County.

Belona; post village in Powhatan County on the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad. Altitude, 368 feet.

Belroi; post village in Gloucester County.

Belsches; post village in Sussex County.

Ben; post village in Alleghany County.

Bena; post village in Gloucester County.

Benbow; post village in Tazewell County.

Bend; ford across Roanoke River in Roanoke County.

Bend; post village in Louisa County.

Benges; small right-hand branch of Powell River in Wise County.

Benges; gap in Little Stone Mountain made by Benges Branch.



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