Virginia County Names:
Two Hundred and Seventy Years of Virginia History

Charles M. Long, PH.D.
New York and Washington
The Neale Publishing Company, 1908



Part I
Introduction

Part II
House of Stuart
The Three Orange Counties
The Fourteen Hanover Counties

Part III
Other Names from England
Thirteen Counties Named After Prominent Englishmen
Twelve Counties Named After English Shires
A County Named After an English Island

Part IV
American Warriors and Statesmen
Counties Named After Eleven Revolutionary Patriots
Counties Named After Seven Virginians

Part V
Virginia Governors and United States Presidents
Counties Named After Thirteen Virginia Governors
Counties Named After Three Presidents

Part VI
Indian Names and Natural Features
Nine Indian County Names
Four Names for Natural Features

Part VII
The Jamestown Exposition and Virginia County Names
Conclusion



Preface

This books aims to tell how the Virginia counties got their names, and in telling the story it endeavors to show that the thoughts and feelings of the Virginians are reflected in the names the counties bear.

In the unfolding of this story I have been impressed, first, by the amount of history suggested by the names; and, second, by the fact that the naming of the Virginia counties furnishes more material for colonial history than the county-naming of any other State in the Union. Of course the history suggested in this way falls far short of being a history of Virginia, but it is not too much to claim that these county-namings are interesting and helpful in presenting some parts of the history of the Old Dominion from a new point of view. The names are the magnet; the facts of Virginia history are the iron filings: it has been my part to put the magnet among the filings.

I have been at much pains in my efforts to verify the facts herein presented, and when in doubt I have endeavored to attach to my statements the exact measure of doubt that I myself entertained.

To include all the facts that have a bearing on Virginia county names I have gone back in Scotch history to 1370; and have brought my work up to date by showing that among the exhibits of the Jamestown Exposition of 1907 were many honoring men after whom Virginia counties had been named.

The second part of the title of the book, "Two hundred and seventy years of Virginia History," is given because of the fact that, with reference to Virginia history, I begin with 1607 and end, as far as the naming of the counties is concerned, with 1880, when the youngest county of the State was organized.

The contents indicates the general plan of the work. The map of Virginia will be found useful for reference. The Appendix gives four tables: 1. A list of Virginia counties, arranged according to the date of formation, and giving source of each county name and the county or counties from which each county was formed. 2. A list of Virginia governors, 1607-1908. 3. Area and population of each county, census 1900. 4. List of authorities consulted in compiling the work.

I acknowledge especial indebtedness to my wife, who rendered material aid in the mechanical preparation of the work; to Dr. B. W. Green, of Charlottesville, Va., who, after reading over the manuscript, made many helpful suggestions; to Mrs. Mary B. Moon, of Charlottesville, Va.; and to Dr. Charles W. Kent, of the University of Virginia, who has encouraged me in presenting this work to the public.

Charles M. Long. Russellville, Ky.



Part I Introduction

CHAPTER I
Introduction

The full significance of geographical names does not appear to the casual thinker; but to one who asks why and how the names were given, interesting' answers often suggest them-selves. From the contemplation of the place that bears his name, we begin to consider the character and actions of the man from whom the name may have been derived, and our thoughts flow easily and swiftly from the man to his nationality, and from the nation to the circumstances that gave to the nation the possession of the place.

Thus, the name St. Petersburg calls up to most students of geography the idea of a great and mighty city, but there the idea generally ends. Further inquiry would have shown that a Russian sovereign, desirous of founding a capital worthy of his vast empire, had struggled against almost insurmountable difficulties and had builded the city which, in its name, reminds us of the ambition and power of Peter the Great. Pennsylvania, by the name it bears, recalls the worth and integrity of honest William Penn1 while Virginia tells us that an English nobleman discovered new and strange lands over the seas; and that Queen Elizabeth, pleased with the discovery of her subject, named these lands in commemoration of her own virgin state.

A name, apart from the circumstances that give it significance, is but a barren mingling of letters and sounds. Why, then, should we prize so dearly the names of objects about us? Why should we be so unwilling to change the name of the rose? It is because the name has become associated with that which it represents. The qualities that belong to the object are reproduced in memory as we name that object. Valueless in itself, the name becomes invaluable from the thoughts and associations that cluster around it.

The value and influence of a name are due to what the name suggests, as when, for in-stance, the warrior, in his fierce battle-cry, clamors for vengeance upon the slayers of his fallen comrades. "Remember the Alamo!"2 shouted the enraged Texans as they rushed upon the superior numbers of the opposing Mexicans. The valor inspired by their thirst for vengeance was irresistible; and the cruel slaughter at the Alamo was avenged by the brilliant victory of San Jacinto, which expelled the hated Mexicans from Texas soil. Virginia names can justly claim for them-selves an unusual degree of interest. In Virginia was made the first permanent English settlement in America, and during all the colonial days Virginia ranked among the colonies first in territory, in population, and in political importance. This priority of rank continued throughout the Revolution, and in 1810 Virginia was still the most populous State in the Union.

The naming of Virginia counties, combined with the circumstances that attended the naming, serves to recall many historical facts, and so numerous and important are these facts that the county names form, as it were, a framework on which hangs much of English history and more of the history of Virginia. Furthermore, this framework presents the facts in a new aspect, and, indeed, probably brings to light not a few facts that are wholly new.

1. It gets its name, however, from Penn's father, Admiral Penn. 2. Pronounced Alamo, and meaning cottonwood tree. 3. A division of England corresponding to our county. 4. Its Indian name was Powhatan, in honor of the great Indian chief.

The progress of events in England was carefully watched by Virginia, and the naming of a county in a particular year often serves to record some event of unusual interest to the mother country and to the colony. Births and marriages in the royal family of England are thus recorded; re-corded in this way, too, is the accession of a new sovereign to the throne, the ministry then in power, or the success of an English general or statesman. So, also, after Virginia became a State, matters and men of State or national interest furnish to a new county a name that indicates in itself the trend of popular sentiment.

The date of the settlement of any particular locality is often indicated by the name given to that locality; so, too, the political views of the residents are exhibited in the character of the names about them.

In Tidewater Virginia nearly all the counties bear names taken from places or persons in England, while in the western part of the State the vast majority of county names are of American origin, the names thus showing that the eastern portion of Virginia was settled earlier than the western portion. In the times of the struggle between the Round-heads and Royalists in England, Virginia earned for herself the title of "Old Do-minion" by her loyalty to the fugitive Prince Charles.

The story of the county-naming is preeminently a story of colonial Virginia, for fifty-eight of Virginia's one hundred counties were named during the colonial era. Furthermore, no State in the Union can begin to suggest, in the naming of her counties, the wealth of colonial history thus suggested by Virginia.

Virginia was the oldest of the colonies, and Virginia has a larger number of counties that were named during the colonial times than any other State. The six New England States have, taken together, only sixty-seven counties in all; Pennsylvania has sixty-seven, and New York has sixty-one. Georgia, decidedly exceeding Virginia in the number of her counties, and North Carolina, nearly equaling her, has both put together, not as many colonial county names as Virginia. The remaining four of the original thirteen colonies. New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and South Carolina, have now, in the aggregate, only eighty-nine counties.

As has been suggested, the long and close connection between England and Virginia is shown by the large number of county names taken from the mother country. Twenty-six of the hundred counties are named in honor of various royal families of England; perhaps a dozen are named after English shires3, six are named after colonial governors; and other names are taken from English generals and statesmen. Altogether England furnishes fifty-seven per cent, of Virginia county names.

Nine counties have Indian names, several are named from their natural features, and about twenty-five are named in honor of men that attained prominence on American soil.



PART II

Names from Royal English Families



CHAPTER II

House of Stuart

When Jamestown was settled in 1607 by the English, James Stuart, son of the beautiful but unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots, sat upon the throne of England. England and Scotland had just been peacefully united into one kingdom under him, for he was heir to the throne of both countries.

The rule of the Stuarts began in Scotland in 1370 under Robert, the steward of that country, who then succeeded to the kingdom with the title of Robert II. The office of steward, which was hereditary, had long been held by Robert's ancestors; and from the office came their family name of "Stuart." Robert II of Scotland was grandson to Robert Bruce, who inflicted such a terrible defeat upon the English at the battle of Bannockburn. The House of Stuart had reigned in Scotland for 233 years, when, in 1603, James VI of Scotland became also James I of England.

The settlers who came to Virginia from England were loyal in their attachment to the mother country, and they manifested their devotion by the character of the names they bestowed on the lands and waters of their new home. Jamestown itself was so called in honor of King James I of England. The river4 that flows by the town was called James in honor of the same sovereign, while Cape Charles and Cape Henry bear the names of two of his sons.

Nine Stuart Counties James City, Organized 1634 Henrico, Organized 1634 Charles City, Organized 1634 Elizabeth City, Organized 1634 York, Organized 1634 Gloucester, Organized 1652 Princess Anne, Organized 1691 Fluvanna, Organized 1777 Prince George, Organized 1703



CHAPTER III

The Nine Stuart Counties

In 1634, when Charles I, son of James I, held the throne of his father, the colony of Virginia was divided into counties, or shires, as they were then called. Eight shires were formed, and five of them bear the names of various members of the royal family of England.

James City County was named after James City5, as Jamestown was called in 1619 and for many years afterward. As has been indicated, the town bore the name of King James I of England - the king who had the common or "King James" version of the English Bible prepared.

Like James City, Henrico County was named after a town within its limits. In 1611 Sir Thomas Dale, with the permission of acting Governor Thomas Gates, made a settlement of 350 chosen men upon a neck of land on James River. The place, which was nearly surrounded by water, he called Henrico, in honor of Prince Henry, son of King James. A county formed twenty-three years later received the name of the town, and thus indirectly Prince Henry's name. The Prince died in 1612, before he had reached his eighteenth birthday. He was a youth of great promise, and was heir apparent to the throne at the time of his death.

5. See p. 198, Martin's "Virginia Gazetteer."

In the list6 of towns, plantations, and hundreds for 1619 is Charles City. The place was almost certainly named after Prince Charles, afterwards King Charles I of England, who was beheaded in 1649 after a reign of nearly twenty-five years. The town could not have been named in honor of Charles II, for he was not born until 1630. Though I have no data to support me, I assume that Charles City county derives its name from that of the town, thus receiving, though indirectly, the name of the king that reigned at the time the county was formed in 1634.

The naming of Elizabeth City County is a matter of greater doubt, for, so far as I can learn, there is no town from which the county might have been named. It is highly probable that the county is named, directly or indirectly, from Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I.

6. See J. E. Cooke's "Virginia." p. 115.

In 1613 the princess married Frederick V, Elector7 Palatine. Frederick was chosen king of Bohemia in 1619, but was utterly defeated the next year by the army of the Catholic League, and had to give up both his electorate and his kingdom.

Elizabeth had thirteen children, several of whom are of considerable historical importance: Charles Louis, who was restored to the electorate at the close of the Thirty Years' War in 1648; Rupert, the "mad cavalier," and Maurice fought for their uncle, Charles I of England, in the civil war so disastrous to the royal cause. Sophia married Ernest Augustus of the House of Brunswick, who afterwards became Elector of Hanover. Parliament agreed that Sophia should succeed Anne as Queen of England, but Sophia died before Anne. Sophia's son, however, - Elizabeth's grandson, became king of England after Anne's death, with the title of George I.

7. Electors were princes or churchmen who had the power of electing the emperor of Germany. Electors first met at Frankfort in 1152. There were seven electors, and their right to elect was hereditary.

Elizabeth possessed an admirable character: strong and true in adversity, charming and vivacious in prosperity. She died in her native England in 1662 at the age of sixty-five.

The name of Elizabeth City County could not have come from Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Charles I, for she was not born until 1635, one year after the county was formed and named.

York and Gloucester counties are almost certainly named after the titles of two of King Charles Fs sons. York was one of the original shires, and was formed when James, Duke of York, was only one year old. Though the title was not formally bestowed on young James until 1643, he was, from the first, called the Duke of York. For a brief period of its existence York County was known as Charles River County.

Prince James succeeded his brother Charles as king of England in 1685, but reigned only three years. He died an exile in France in 1701.

The first time that the name of Gloucester County, 8 which was formed from York, occurs is 1652. King Charles's son, Henry, the Duke of Gloucester, was then eleven years old. Henry died of small-pox at the early age of twenty; his brother, Charles II, had shortly before become king.

8. Dr. B. W. Green, quoting Henning's "Statues at Large for Virginia," Vol. i, p. 371.

York and Gloucester counties may possibly be named after English shires, though it is most probable that they were named, as indicated, in honor of the dukes of York and Gloucester. The time of their naming, and the naming of other counties after members of the same royal family, heighten this probability.

Princess Anne and Fluvanna counties are named after Anne, second daughter of James II.

This princess was born in 1664, when her father was the Duke of York. At the ac-cession of William and Mary to the throne in 1688, she did not follow her father into exile, but adhered to the dominant Protestant party, and remained at the English court, where her oldest sister was queen. With the exception of the king and queen, Anne was probably the most prominent character at court.

It is therefore not surprising that, when King and Queen County was named in honor of William and Mary in 1691, Princess Anne County should have been named after Anne at the same time.

When nineteen years of age Anne married Prince George, son of Christian V, of Denmark. She had seventeen children, though only one of them survived infancy, and he died at the age of eleven. After receiving due honors in the reign of William and Mary, she succeeded to the English throne at William's death in 1702, Mary having died before her husband. Anne's older brother James, by right of birth, had a prior claim to the crown, but because he was a Catholic he was set aside in favor of the Protestant Anne.

The Virginians testified their loyalty to Queen Anne by naming Prince George County after her husband the same year in which she became queen. The Danish prince was never given kingly power in England; Anne, like Victoria, ruled alone.

Anne was twelve years queen. Though not brilliant, she seems to have won the affection of her subjects, and was known as the “Good Queen Anne." She died in 1714 at the age of fifty.

The James River above where the Rivanna enters it was formerly called Fluvanna, in honor of Queen Anne. The Latin word fluvius means river; the English name “Anna" was added to fluv, the stem of the Latin word; and thus fluv-anna, River Anna, was formed. Rivanna was also named after Queen Anne; the name is merely a shorter way of saying River Anna. In 1777 the present county of Fluvanna was organized, and received the name by which the upper James had been called, thus indirectly receiving Queen Anne's name. The sometime Fluv-anna River was thenceforth called the James. The North Anna, South Anna, and Rapidan rivers are also named after Anne. And in her honor the capital city of Maryland had its name changed, in 1691, from Providence to Annapolis.

Of the nine Stuart-named counties, all except York, Gloucester and Princess Anne lie directly on the James. Elizabeth City, with an area of fifty square miles, is the smallest county in the State except Alexandria. It lies on the north side of Hampton Roads, and in it is the noted Fort Monroe. James City County lies between the York and the James, and is separated from Charles City by the Chickahominy River. Charles City and Henrico occupy the peninsula formed by the James and Chickahominy Rivers. York County lies along the south bank of the York River and adjoins the Chesapeake Bay on the east. Gloucester's southern boundary is on the York River; Mobjack Bay bounds it on the southeast, and the Piankatank River separates it on the north from Middlesex.

Chesapeake Bay and its tidewater tributaries afford excellent transportation, and the immense supply of fish and oysters is a source of great wealth to the counties drained by these waters.

Princess Anne county lies south of the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic coast; it is bounded on the south by North Carolina, and North River, its chief stream, flows into the North Carolinian Currituck Sound.

Prince George County lies along the south bank of the James, just across from Charles City. The Appomattox, Blackwater, and Nottoway rivers, together with the James, receive the county's drainage.

Fluvanna is situated between Goochland and Albemarle on the north bank of the James, and is nearly bisected by the Rivanna River.

Three Orange Counties King and Queen, Organized 1691 King William, Organized 1701 Orange, Organized 1734

The Three Orange Counties

Three counties of Virginia are named in honor of the House of Orange, a prominent royal family of Holland that became connected with England by treaty and by marriage.

King and Queen County is so called in honor of King William III of England, who was the Prince of Orange, and of Queen Mary, who ruled England jointly with her husband.9

In 1701, seven years after Mary's death, King William County was named after William, 10 who was sole ruler of England during the eight years in which he survived his wife. Although William was a prince of Holland, he was grandson of Charles I of England through his mother Mary, who was the oldest daughter of that king. His wife Mary was his first cousin, for she also was a grandchild of Charles I. Thus in William and Mary the line of Stuarts was indirectly represented on the English throne.

9. William and Mary College, chartered in 1692, takes its name from these sovereigns.

10. Williamsburg was named in honor of King William, and the streets were to have been laid out in the shape of a W, but this plan was only partly carried out.

There is hardly a doubt that the naming of Orange county in 1 734 was a graceful way of extending congratulations to Prince William of Orange, who married Anne, the oldest daughter of George II of England, in that year.

The above explanation of Orange County’s name is original with me, and I adopted it even before I knew that a county in North Carolina was named in honor of the House of Orange. The historian John Fiske, as I learned in 1900, says without qualification, that Orange County is named after the House of Orange.

Two historians of Virginia give a different explanation of how the county got its name. Martin's "Gazetteer of Virginia"11 states that Orange County derived its name from the color of the soil in the mountainous portion of the county. Howe's "History of Virginia,"12 which bought the copyright to Martin's book, follows Martin in saying that the county was named from the color of the soil.

A number of considerations, besides the authority of Mr. Fiske, strengthen my belief that Orange County was named in compliment to Prince William of Orange.

11. P. 253. 12. P. 417.

The connection between England and the House of Orange had been long and close. The family influence of George II determined several Virginia county names, both before and after Orange County was named. In 1727 Caroline County was named after George's wife, Queen Caroline; in 1730 Prince William County received the name of his son William; in 1738 Frederick and Augusta Counties were named after the Prince of Wales and his wife; in 1742 Louisa County received the name of a daughter of George 11. Of the seven counties besides Orange that were formed during the sixteen years ending in 1742, five were named after members of George II’s family. Counties had been named after both of his sons, after one son's wife, and also after two of his five daughters. As there was already a Princess Anne County, George's oldest daughter, Anne, had not yet been honored by a Virginia county name, There was then no opportunity for bestowing such a distinction, but in 1734 the occasion offered to honor her by naming a county after her husband's family. It is hard to believe that Virginia failed to seize the opportunity.

King and Queen County is south of Essex and Middlesex, and is separated from King William on the south by the Mattapony River. The county is drained chiefly by the Mattapony River, partly by the Piankatank.

King William County is enclosed on all except its northwest side by the Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers; Caroline county bounds it on the northwest.

Orange County, in north-central Virginia, is watered by the Rapidan and North Anna rivers; its western surface is broken by mountains. Although it’s present area is only 349 square miles. Orange County, at its formation one hundred and seventy-four years ago, comprised all of Virginia west of the Blue Ridge.

Fourteen Hanover Counties Brunswick, Organized 1720 Hanover, Organized 1720 King George, Organized 1720 Caroline, Organized 1727 Prince William, Organized 1730 Amelia, Organized 1734 Frederick, Organized 1738 Augusta, Organized 1738 Louisa, Organized 1742 Lunenburg, Organized 1745 Cumberland, Organized 1748 Prince Edward, Organized 1753 Charlotte, Organized 1764 Mecklenburg, Organized 1764



CHAPTER V

The Fourteen Hanover Counties

At Queen Anne's death, in 17 14, the House of Hanover came into peaceful possession of the English throne. This line of sovereigns was so called because the Ger-man province of Hanover, with its various duchies, became subject to the English crown when George, the Elector of Hanover, became also ruler of England. Hanover remained a part of the British kingdom until 1837, when Victoria became queen of the English. It then became independent of England, for, by the German law of succession, no female could reign in Hanover.

Fourteen Virginia counties bear names pertaining to the family of Hanover, and, as might be expected from early settled counties, most of them are in the eastern part of the State. .They were all named within a period of forty-five years, beginning in 1720 and ending in 1764. After the latter date names associated with American independence begin to be prominent among the Virginia counties.

Brunswick, Hanover, and King George counties, all three named in 1720, bear emphatic evidence of Virginia's loyalty to the home government in England. Hanover and Brunswick are named in honor of the House of Hanover and the House of Brunswick respectively, though of course the families derived their names in the first case from the German province of Hanover, and in the second case from the duchy of Brunswick, which formed a part of Hanover. King George County bears the name of the king himself, George I, who ruled over England and Hanover from 1714 to 1727.

In 1727 George II succeeded his father as king, and during the thirty-three years of his reign nine Virginia counties were named in honor of various members of the royal family. The king's wife, two sons, two daughters, a grandson, a son-in-law, and a daughter-in-law were thus complimented. Moreover, an-other county, Lunenburg, was named in honor of the king himself, for one of the king's titles was duke of Brunswick-Lunebürg, Lunebürg being the German form of Lunenburg.

Caroline county was formed in 1727, the first year of George II's reign, and derived its name from the new sovereign's wife, Queen Caroline. Caroline was a woman of character and ability and exercised considerable influence on English politics during the ten years that she lived after becoming queen.

Two counties are named in honor of Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and favorite - though not the oldest - son of George II. When the prince was only nine years old Prince William County received his name, in 1730. Eighteen years later, when William was commander-in-chief of the British army, 13 Cumberland County was named in honor of the duke, in this instance, however, taking his title for that purpose. The duke had won great popularity by his decisive victory over the "Young Pretender" at Culloden in 1746, and a triumphal demonstration was made at Norfolk, Va., in honor of the victory. England rewarded Prince William with an annual pension of £40,000, or about $200,000, in gratitude to him for destroying forever the hopes the Stuarts may have entertained of gaining the English crown. The duke's subsequent military career, however, was quite unsuccessful. On his return from an unfortunate war in Hanover he resigned from the army, and was not again given office. He died in 1765.

13. Dr. B. W. Green, an authority on matters of Virginia history, supports me in this explanation of the name of Cumberland County in Virginia. Spencer's "North Carolina History" says that a North Carolina county was named after the duke in 1754. The "American Cyclopedia" says that Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, was, in 1750, named after the shire of that name in the north-west of England.

The county of Amelia was organized in 1734, and takes its name from Amelia Sophia, second daughter of George II. The county of Orange was named in the same year to honor King George's son-in-law, the Prince of Orange, who had just married Anne, the king's oldest daughter. The accomplished and imperious Amelia never married. The princess was addicted to the habit of taking snuff, and on her snuff-box was inscribed, “Noli me tangere” (Don't touch me). An old army officer once disregarded the injunction and helped himself to some snuff from Amelia's snuff-box, whereupon the indignant Amelia had the remainder of the contents of the box cast into the fire. She was born in 1711, and lived through the entire reigns of her grandfather and father, and her nephew, George III, had been twenty-six years king when she died in 1786.

Louisa County was named in 1742 in compliment to Princess Louisa, the fifth and youngest daughter of George II, and was then a graceful, talented and amiable young lady of eighteen. She married Frederick V of Denmark the next year, and died in 175 1, at the age of twenty-seven.

Frederick and Augusta Counties were named in 1738 in honor of the Prince of Wales and his wife, who had just become the happy parents of a son. Twenty-two years later this son succeeded his grandfather as king of England, with the title of George III. Frederick himself died in 1751, during his father's reign, and so never became king. The city of Fredericksburg in Spotsylvania County was founded in 1727 and named after Prince Frederick, when the prince was twenty-one years old.

Frederick's character was full of contradictions, and his faults were neither few nor small; but he was a friend to authors, and he encouraged painting. He even attempted poetry himself, and most of his verse, which was wretched, was written in praise of his wife. Augusta's intelligence, her kindness, and her virtue, at a time when license and immorality abounded, deserved the efforts of a better poet.

Augusta was only seventeen when the royal yacht, William and Mary, carried her from her home in Saxe-Gotha to become the bride of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1736. As has been said, Augusta herself never became queen of England, but from her have descended all the sovereigns of England since her day. Victoria was her great-grand-daughter, and thus Edward VII is her great-great-grandson. Augusta lived to see England attain a greater tide of power than she had ever before reached, and she died before the ebb set in: immense possessions had just been wrenched from France in North America, and the foundations of Britain's power had been securely laid in India. It was in 1772, just before the tyranny of George III had lost to England the greater part of her North American possessions that Augusta died.

Edward Augustus, second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, was fourteen years old when Prince Edward County was named after him in 1753. During the splendid and elaborate marriage of King George III to Queen Charlotte in 176 1, Edward proved very helpful to his royal brother by his kindly tact. The prince, who seems to have been of a witty and sunshiny disposition, was created Duke of York. He never married, and died in 1761, at the age of twenty-eight.

When the Virginians formed a new county from Brunswick in 1746, they realized that, although the reigning king's wife and various members of the royal household had been honored in naming Virginia counties, no such honor had been paid directly to the king himself.

The name King George had already been given in honor of George I, and Prince George was not suitable for a king, besides, there was already a Prince George county. But the supply of titles by which George II could be called was not yet exhausted, and accordingly the new county received the name of Lunenburg, the English rendering of the German Luneburg, for George II, as well as his father, George I, was Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg. This name seems especially appropriate when we consider that Lunenburg County was taken directly from Brunswick. Luneburg and Brunswick were at one time separate duchies, but in George II’s time they constituted a single duchy, Brunswick-Luneburg, and were a part of the kingdom of Hanover.

The State of Georgia bears the name of George II.

Three Virginia counties were named to honor George I, ten to honor George II, and two to honor George III, and both of the last were named in compliment to Queen Charlotte, wife of George III. Both counties were taken from Lunenburg, and both were formed in 1764. Charlotte County takes its name directly from Queen Charlotte. Mecklenburg also is named in honor of the queen, but indirectly so, for its gets its name from the German duchy, or rather grand-duchy, of Mecklenburg13-Strelitz, from which Charlotte came, and of which her brother was the duke. Charlottesville, Va., was founded soon after Charlotte became queen, and was named in her honor.

Charlotte Sophia, sister of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, married young King George III in 1761, and was fifty-seven years queen of England. Fifteen children sprang from this marriage, and all but two grew up. There were nine sons and six daughters; the aggregate age of the sons was 494 years; of the daughters, 371 years. The average age of the fifteen children was 56 years and 8 months; twelve attained the age of 50 years, ten of these reached 60 years, eight attained 70 years, and two lived to be 80. The average age of George III and Queen Charlotte was over 75 years.

13. The German duchy of Mecklenburg is divided into the two grandduchies of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Mecklinburg-Schwerin.

Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Lunenburg, and Charlotte Counties are situated together in southern Virginia, just east of the center, and are watered by North Carolina streams. Prince Edward lies north of Charlotte and Lunenburg, and is drained chiefly by Appomattox waters. Amelia and Cumberland, to the northeast of Prince Edward, are separated from each other by the Appomattox River; Willis River drains a large part of Cumberland County. Hanover separates Louisa County from Caroline. The North Anna and South Anna Rivers drain Louisa, flow southeast, and, together with the Pamunkey and Chickahominy, also drain Henrico. Caroline is watered by the Rappahannock, Mattapony, and North Anna Rivers.

King George lies on the opposite side of the Rappahannock from Caroline, and has the Potomac on its northern boundary. Prince William, also adjacent to the Potomac, has the now famous stream of Bull Run on a part of its northern border, while the village of Manassas is within its territory.

Frederick, in the Shenandoah Valley, is the most northern county in the State; while Augusta, also in the Valley, is the largest county in Virginia.

Mecklenburg County is justly famed for its wonderful mineral springs.

The nine counties named after the Stuarts, though small in area, are rich in historical associations. James City County contains Jamestown, which was the colonial capital until it was burned in Bacon's Rebellion in 1676; and it also contains Williamsburg, which became the capital in 1699, and so continued until it was succeeded by Richmond, in 1779. Henrico owes much of its historical interest to its chief city, Richmond, the capital of the State and also of the Confederacy during most of the Civil War of 1861-65. President Tyler died in Richmond, and President Monroe is buried there, in the beautiful Hollywood cemetery. It seems rather strange that Charles City county, which contains only 183 square miles, should have been the birthplace of William Henry Harrison and of John Tyler, who became President and Vice- President respectively of the United States in 184 1. Tyler became President a month later, at Harrison's death.

Orange is probably the most interesting historically of the three counties named after the House of Orange. In Orange President Madison died, and there President Taylor was born.

Among the Hanover counties, Hanover itself gave birth to Patrick Henry and to Henry Clay. King George was the birth-place of President Madison. Prince William County makes the old Confederate soldier thrill with pride as he remembers the two brilliant victories of First and Second Manassas.



PART III

Other Names from England

Thirteen Counties Named After Prominent Englishmen Warwick Original shire, 1634 Southampton, Organized 1748 Northampton Original shire, 1634 Richmond, Organized 1692 Fairfax, Organized 1742 Albemarle, Organized 1744 Loudoun, Organized 1757 Amherst Organized 1761 Chesterfield, Organized 1748 Halifax Organized 1752 Pittsylvania Organized 1767 Greenville Organized 1780 Rockingham, Organized 1777



CHAPTER VI

Thirteen Counties Named After Prominent Englishmen

Eleven Virginia counties, and more probably thirteen, are named in honor of various prominent Englishmen that lived during the days when Virginia was a colony. With regard to the naming of Richmond and Greenville Counties, there attaches considerable doubt; hence I have adopted the explanation that seems to me most probable.

Assuming that all thirteen of the counties were named as I suppose, the explanations will be as follows: two counties, Warwick and Southampton, were named after two English earls, members of the London Company for Virginia; Northampton is named after an English earl killed in fighting for King Charles I; Richmond county takes the name of an English duke; Fairfax is named in honor of an Englishman who owned extensive tracts of land in Virginia; Albemarle, Loudoun, and Amherst Counties are named after English generals; and Chesterfield, Halifax, Pittsylvania, Greenville, and Rockingham reproduce the names of English statesmen.

Warwick County, one of the original shires and at first called Warwick River County, is named after Robert Rich, 14 the second Earl of Warwick, who was a prominent member of the London Company for Virginia. Rich obtained celebrity in the Civil War, was admiral for the Long Parliament, and enjoyed the confidence of Cromwell. He died in 1659, the year before the monarchy was restored.

Southampton County derives its name indirectly from Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton; 15 for the "hundred" of Southampton, a division of the colony smaller than the county, was named in the earl's honor while he was treasurer for the London Company. The county itself did not receive the earl's name until 124 years after his death.

Wriothesley is said to have been especially active in procuring for Virginia the first charter of the London Company; and the second charter of the company made him treasurer, which then virtually meant governor, for the company. He held this office until the company was dissolved in 1624. A few months later he died of a fever that was contracted while he was engaged in an expedition against the Dutch. The Earl of Southampton, to whom Shakespeare dedicated "Venus and Adonis" and the "Rape of Lucrece," is the only man from whom Shakespeare acknowledges having received a benefit. A son of Shakespeare's friend became the fourth Earl of Southampton, and was Treasurer of England during the first seven years of Charles II’s reign.

13. Dr. B. W. Green is authority for this, though I had already thought it probably the origin of the county name.

14. Dr. Green says the county is named after the earl; so also Bishop Meade. I had already learned that the “hundred” took the earls name,

Northampton County was one of the eight original shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634. Its name until 1642-43 was "Accawmacke," called from the name of an Indian tribe that lived on the "Eastern Shore," which is that part of Virginia lying between the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, and containing the counties of Accomac and Northampton. The county name of Accomac was revived in 1672, when Northampton County was divided, and the northern part called Accomac.

The Eastern Shore county of "Accawmacke" doubtless had its name changed in 1643 to honor the memory of a brave Royalist, Spencer Compton, second Earl of Northampton, who that year gave his life in the cause of King Charles I. This explanation of the name is original with me, but the enthusiastic loyalty of the Virginians to the royal cause and the fact that the name was changed at a time when the colonists would be wanting to show their loyalty, make it almost certain that the death of the earl and the naming of the county in the same year stand in the relation of cause and effect.

Spencer Compton,16 second Earl of Northampton, born in May, 1601, a partisan of Charles in his struggle with Parliament, served actively in the royal army, and, while commanding the royal troops, was killed at the battle of Hopton Heath, March 19, 1643.

It is interesting to note that the North Carolina15 county of Northampton was named in 1741 in honor of George, probably the fourth Earl of Northampton. Spencer Compton, third son of the third Earl of Northampton, was created Viscount Pevensy and Earl of Wilmington in 1730 - whence probably the name of the city of Wilmington, North Carolina.

15. Century Cyclopedia of Names." * 16. Spencer’s N. C. History, appendix.

Of course the county of Northampton in Virginia could have been named after the English shire of the same name, and a writer in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography17 gives this origin of the name. He states that the name is said to have been changed from Accomac in honor of Colonel Obedience Robins, who was from Longbuckie, in Northampton, England.

As has been said, the origin of Richmond County’s name is very doubtful. There is no English shire after which it could have been named. The beautiful city of Richmond18 on the Thames gave the name to the present capital of Virginia, but there is no reason to believe that the Virginia County got is name from the English city. There remains the possibility that the county may take the name of some English Earl or Duke of Richmond, living, or in public remembrance, at the time the county was named.

Such a nobleman was Charles Lennox, first Duke of Richmond and a natural son of King

17. Vol. ix. No. I, p. 94; reference through Dr. B. W. Green. 18. Howe's "Virginia," p. 305.

Charles II. The duke was born in 1672, and was therefore twenty years old when, in 1692, the old county of Rappahannock was divided into the two new counties of Richmond and Essex, and itself ceased to exist. The present county of Rappahannock has no relation to the former one, except that it bears the same name.

Macaulay, in his "History of England," relates that King Charles on his death-bed parted with peculiar tenderness from the Duke of Richmond. At the Revolution of 1688 Richmond went to Paris in the service of the fugitive James, but later, changing both his politics and his religion, he became reconciled to King William and entered the Church of England. William's wife was a daughter of James, and Anne, another daughter, was, with the exception of the king and queen, probably the most prominent character at court. In 1691 a county had been named after the king and queen jointly and another county had received Princess Anne's name. It seems, therefore, not unlikely that the county of Richmond, formed in 1692, received the name of the Duke of Richmond, who was so closely connected with the royal family of England, and whose reconciliation with the king doubtless attracted the attention of the colonists in Virginia. I do not, un-fortunately, know the date of the reconciliation, but, as the duke was "an unprincipled adventurer,''18he most likely had gone over to William before 1692. Richmond died in England in 1723.

In connection with the Virginia county, it is interesting to note that the North Carolina county of Richmond, formed in 1779, was named after Charles Lennox, third Duke of Richmond (and probably a grandson of the first Duke of Richmond), who was a friend of the colonies in the English Parliament. A descendant of the first Duke of Richmond was Governor-General of Canada for some years during the latter part of the nineteenth century.

Thomas, the sixth Baron of Fairfax, was born in England in 1691, and died in 1782 at his large country mansion, "Greenway Court," twelve miles from Winchester, Va. He came to Virginia in 1739, but soon returned to England. In 1742, during his absence from Virginia, a part of his estates was organized into a county and named Fairfax in his honor. In 1745 Lord Fairfax settled permanently on his Virginia lands. Sixteen of the present counties of the State19 - Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond, Westmoreland, Stafford, King George, Prince William, Fairfax, Loudoun, Fauquier, Culpeper, Clarke, Madison, Page, Shenandoah, and Frederick - and the seven West Virginia counties of Hampshire, Hardy, Morgan, Berkeley, Jefferson, Grant, and Mineral, belonged to the cultivated and hospitable old bachelor.

18. "Century Cyclopedia of Names," under Charles Lennox. 19. Footnote, p. 236, Howe's "Virginia History." Grant and Mineral counties in West Virginia have been organized from Hampshire and Hardy since Howe wrote.

Lord Fairfax employed young Washington to make surveys on his vast domain, and the two men formed a strong and lifelong friendship for each other. Sir Thomas's home was often the resort of guests, and his friendliness and generosity made him universally esteemed. During the Revolution he remained loyal to George III, but neither American nor Briton would harm the property of the genial old gentleman.

Albemarle County, organized in 1744, was named after William Anne Keppel, second Earl of Albemarle, who had been appointed Governor-in-chief of Virginia seven years before. The earl never occupied the governor's chair, and Virginia was under deputy governors during the seventeen years that he was nominally her chief executive.

Keppel was born in England in 1702; at fifteen years of age was made captain in the English army, and was successively promoted for meritorious conduct until 1743, when he became Lieutenant-General. His excellent military record doubtless led to his being made governor of Virginia.

The Earl of Loudoun and General Amherst, prominent officers of the French and Indian War, were his successors in the gubernatorial office, though, like Keppel, neither of them actually performed the functions of that office. Lord Albemarle had a fine figure and courtly manners, but his habits were so extravagant that he was kept heavily in debt. He died in Paris at the age of fifty-two.

Keppel must not be confused with General George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who restored the Stuarts to the throne in 1660. The duke was one of the eight original grantees of Carolina, and his name still lives in the North Carolina Albemarle Sound.

In 1757, when Loudoun county20 was formed, Lord Loudoun was commander of the British troops in America, and hence his name is given to one of the fairest of Virginia counties. Loudoun had been appointed governor of Virginia in the same year, but his military duties in the North prevented him from assuming the office. He proved, however, an utterly incompetent general. After he had left northern New York almost defenseless in order to increase the army he was leading against the strong French fortress at Louisburg, the enemy gained important successes on the unprotected frontier. Loudoun's efforts resulted in no advantage to the British, for he did not deem his forces strong enough to carry on the siege, and so the English retired from Louisburg without accomplishing anything.

20. There is a Loudon county, Tennessee, and the Virginia County is sometimes incorrectly spelled without the u.

Very different was the military career of General Amherst, whom Pitt, the new English Prime Minister, appointed in Loudoun's place in 1758. Louisburg was soon taken, and the English arms were nearly everywhere successful. The fall of Quebec in 1760 virtually ended the war, and, by the terms of the treaty of peace made in 1763, the French yielded to the English all their territory in North America except several small islands near Newfoundland. Amherst County’s name, which was given in 1761, fairly indicates the joyful pride that Virginia felt in the successful general. Amherst was appointed governor of Virginia in 1763, but he did not assume the office, and hence Fauquier continued to serve.

In 1748, when the Earl of Chesterfield had just ended his brilliant public career in Great Britain, the Virginia County was named in his honor. The earl had been many years both in the House of Commons and in the House of Lords, but his greatest political success was his able administration as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. His courtly grace and polished dignity made "Chesterfield manners" proverbial; and to say that one is a “regular Lord Chesterfield" is merely an emphatic way of affirming a complete fulfilment of the laws of etiquette. Chesterfield lived twenty-five years after his retirement to private life, and spent much of his time in correspondence. His letters, 21 like his manners, are models of style.

In 1749 the English Earl of Halifax founded in Nova Scotia the famous seaport city that bears his name. The county that contains the city is also called Halifax, in honor of the earl. Three years later Virginia followed Nova Scotia's example by organizing a Halifax County also. In 1758 North Carolina, too, named a county after the Earl of Halifax.

21. Chesterfield's letters are valuable also as original sources of history. They give an inner picture of court life and of the royal family.

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, was hardly surpassed in popularity or influence by any English statesman of the eighteenth century, though William Gladstone held nearly the same place in English hearts in the nineteenth century that William Pitt did 140 years ago. Nearly half of Pitt's seventy years of life was spent in public service, and the successful termination of the war in Canada in 1763 was due to his sound judgment in the choice of generals. Pitt's part in securing the repeal of the odious Stamp Act of 1766 was so well known that the General Assemblies of Massachusetts and Virginia gave him a vote of thanks for his efforts in their behalf. The grateful Virginians named Pittsylvania County after him the next year, and its county seat is called Chatham, from the earl's title. The city of Pittsburg in Pennsylvania is also named after William Pitt.

Greenville (sometimes spelled Greenesville) County was formed in the latter part of 1780. I am divided between two explanations of the name, as it may come either from Sir Richard Temple Grenville, sometimes spelled Greenville, a brother-in-law of William Pitt, or from General Nathaniel Greene, of Revolutionary fame. Both explanations have much to recommend them, and while I credit the name to the English nobleman, I regard it equally as probable that it should be credited to the Revolutionary patriot.

A sketch of General Greene is given elsewhere, 22 and a few words must suffice here. After ably fulfilling the duties of quarter-master-general of the Revolutionary army for two years, Greene was transferred to the command of the army in the South in the autumn of 1780. In October of that year he had presided over the tribunal that convicted the brave but unfortunate Andre. At the time that Greenville County was formed, the name of General Greene was already loved and honored in the South, and his movements were eagerly and anxiously watched by the patriotic Virginians. What Greene did or failed to do was going to mean much to the South and to Virginia, much to the very existence of the nation. What man could Virginia at that time more fittingly honor in the naming of a new county? 23

22. Pp. 113-114. 23. The county clerk of Greenville, 1895, unhesitatingly said that the county was named after General Greene.

Sir Richard Temple Grenville was born in 171 1, and after an active life in politics, during which he showed himself to be a friend to liberty, he died in 1779, one year before the Virginia county of Greenville was formed. He was a brother-in-law of William Pitt, who had died in 1778, and was a patron of John Wilkes, the English politician and political agitator who became a popular hero by his fearless attacks on the English ministry and King George III. Wilkes, after being several times elected to Parliament and kept from taking his seat on the ground that he was ineligible, was elected and seated in 1774, and continued in Parliament until 1790. In 1777 Wilkes County, North Carolina, was named after the English friend of liberty. In addition to his connection, private and political, with William Pitt, so highly esteemed in the colonies, and his friendship for John Wilkes, Grenville was supposed by many to have been the author of the "Letters of Junius,'' that were such masterly attacks on the English government at a time when the colonies were feeling the weight of English oppression.

The probability that the Virginia County was named after Sir Richard Grenville is heightened by the fact that North Carolina, in 1777, named three counties, Burke, Camden, and Wilkes, after English friends to the colonies, and in 1779 named Richmond County after another English friend.

The chief objection to the theory that Greenville County is named after General Greene is that the county is named Greenville, and not Greene. A further objection is the fact that in 1838 Virginia named Greene County in honor of the Revolutionary patriot, which she would hardly have done if one Virginia County were already named after Greene. It is, of course, possible that the older county was named in honor of the general, and that this fact was forgotten or over-looked when the new county was named.

The Marquis of Rockingham, after whom the Virginia County was named in 1777, was far inferior to William Pitt in ability; yet, as the leader of the liberal party among the aristocrats in England, he proved himself to be the true friend of America. He was Prime Minister of England in 1765-66, and, from that time, headed the opposition to the war ministry of Lord North. In 1782, when the party in favor of making peace with America came into power, Rockingham became Prime Minister again, but died a few months after assuming the office.

These thirteen counties are pretty widely scattered throughout the State. Loudoun and Fairfax are the most northern of them, and are watered by Potomac streams. Fairfax is rendered more attractive when it is remembered that Mount Vernon, the home and burial place of Washington, is within its borders. At Oak Hill in Loudoun county is the home where President Monroe resided for part of the time after his retirement from the Presidency.

Rockingham is a large county that lies between the Blue Ridge and Great North Mountains in the Shenandoah Valley, and it is drained by waters that enter the beautiful Shenandoah River.

Albemarle, in north-central Virginia, has beautiful mountain and river scenery. In this county is Charlottesville, which contains the University of Virginia. This institution, which was founded by Thomas Jefferson, has long held the first place among Southern universities. Jefferson was born in Albemarle, and also died there; and near Charlottesville is Monticello, his home and burial place. Albemarle produces excellent grapes, and the “Albemarle pippin" is probably more widely and favorably known than any other apple.

In 1842, when Mr. Andrew Stevenson, a citizen of Albemarle county, represented the United States at the English court, he caused several barrels of Albemarle pippins to be presented to Queen Victoria.24 From that time until her death the pippin was the apple eaten at the Court of St. James'; and it may be that King Edward keeps up the custom of his mother. At any rate, the pippin has a wonderful popularity in England now. Mr. C. E. Sydnor, the Richmond fruit expert, received, in the summer of 1907, an order from a wholesale fruit merchant of England for 20,000 barrels of pippins. This order, at $6.50 a; barrel in London, would represent about $130,000. Sydnor also received an order from Copenhagen, Denmark, for 5000 barrels of pippins. Some years ago a university student sent as a Christmas present a barrel of choice pippins from Charlottesville to his sweetheart in Louisiana. He took the writer with him to help select the apples, and the two sampled the fruit before it was shipped. Well, if those apples didn't win that girl, she must be proof against all the wiles of crafty lovers!

24. Charlottesville Daily Progress, July 9, 1907.

Amherst County has the Blue Ridge on its northwestern border, while the James River adjoins it on the south for a distance of fifty miles.25

Pittsylvania and Halifax counties lie together on the North Carolina border, and are watered by the Staunton and the Dan Rivers. Both are unusually large counties, and Pittsylvania is exceeded in population by Henrico and Norfolk only.

Chesterfield is southeast of the State's center, and is surrounded on all except its northwest side by the James and Appomattox Rivers. Matoaca, a town of seven hundred in-habitants on the north bank of the Appomattox not far from Petersburg, bears a private name of Pocahontas, 26 the Indian princess. Matoaca was the early home of John Randolph of Roanoke. Numerous Indian relics have been found there, and the place seems to have been a favorite resort with the Indians. Indeed, we assume that Pocohantas herself must have loved the neighborhood, for not far from Matoaca is a small place, not a post office, but a station on the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, called Pocahontas; and in Amelia County is Mattoax, which is simply another rendering of the Indian girl’s name.

25. Whitehead's "Virginia Handbook” p. 202 26. Howe's "Virginia," p. 229.

Warwick and Southampton Counties are in southern Virginia, with the Isle of Wight County between them. Warwick County is in the southeastern part of the peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers. Its original name was Warwick River County, 27 though the "River" was dropped before 1672. The county has greatly increased in population since Newport News began its growth.

Southampton County is drained by the Meherrin, Nottoway, and Blackwater Rivers. In Southampton occurred a slave insurrection under Nat Turner in 1831. Fifty-nine whites were murdered in cold blood, most of them women and children. The rising was promptly suppressed and Turner and about a dozen of his followers were hanged. The Negro leader claimed to have received revelations from heaven directing him to the step. The outbreak was not caused by cruelty of the whites to their slaves, for Turner confessed that his master treated him kindly.

27. Martin's ''Virginia Gazetteer," p. 288.

As has been said, Northampton County is the southern part of the "Eastern Shore" of Virginia, Accomac comprising the northern part. Sulgrave, the ancestral home of the Washingtons, is in Northampton.

Richmond, in the "Northern Neck," the peninsula formed by the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, is hemmed in by the Rappahannock River and by Westmoreland, Northumberland, and Lancaster Counties.

Greenville County, on the North Carolina line, separates Brunswick from Sussex and Southampton, and is watered by the Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers.

Twelve Counties Named After English Shires. New Kent, Organized 1654 Surry, Organized 1652 Norfolk, Organized 1691 Sussex, Organized 1754 Buckingham, Organized 1761 Bedford, Organized 1753 Stafford, Organized 1666 Westmoreland, Organized 1653 Northumberland, Organized 1648 Lancaster, Organized 1651 Essex, Organized 1692 Middlesex, Organized 1675

Twelve Counties Named After English Shires

Seventeen Virginia counties have names that correspond to those of shires in England. Five of these names, however, are probably derived from titles of nobility with which prominent Englishmen were honored; Gloucester and York were nearly certainly named after two29 of King Charles I’s sons, Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and James, Duke of York. Cumberland county is named after Prince William, Duke of Cumberland and son of George II, King of England; Warwick county30 takes its name from the Earl of Warwick, a prominent member of the London Company for Virginia, and Northampton county31 is nearly certainly named after Spencer Compton, Earl of Northampton, who fell fighting for King Charles in the civil war of 1642-49. Bedford County, too, may possibly be named after an English duke, though it is classed among the counties named after the English shires.

29. See antea, pp. 34-35. 30. See aniea, p. 64. 31. Set antea, p. 66,

Of the remaining twelve counties given in the list above, the names of two. New Kent and Surry can be traced with certainty.

New Kent is so named from the shire of Kent in England, and is a small tidewater county north of Henrico and Charles City. There are five Kent counties in the United States: in Rhode Island, Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, and Texas; and it is almost safe to assume that the first three names are taken directly from the English shire, for these are old colonial counties and named when the States were loyal to England.

In New Kent county, on the banks of the Pamunkey River, is the mansion called the "White House,” which occupies the site of the one in which Washington was married.

About five miles from the mouth of Ware Creek, a tributary of the York River, and twenty-two miles from Jamestown, stand the ruins of the "The Old Stone House."32 This building, though not completed, was strongly made and well suited for defense. Captain John Smith describes just such a fort that was partly built in 1608-09, but never finished, because the workmen had to stop building in order to provide a food supply. 33 If this be Captain Smith's fort, it is probably the oldest building erected by the English in America.

32. Campbell’s "History of Virginia," p. 74. 33. Howe's "Virginia History," pp. 390-392; Smith's "Virginia," Vol. iii. p. 227.

Surry County takes its name from the shire of Surrey, spelled with an e in England.34 The only other Surry County in the United States is in North Carolina, which State follows Virginia in leaving out the original e. The North Carolina County is named after the English shire.35 Surry is on the south bank of the James River, between Isle of Wight on the east and Prince George on the west. The Blackwater River receives the drainage of the county on the southwest.

Nearly all of the twelve counties that we may assume to have been named after the shires of England are tidewater counties, and ten of them were named before 1700. Buckingham and Bedford are the only ones containing mountains. Five of the thirteen - Norfolk, Sussex, Buckingham, Bedford, and Surry - lie south of the James. Surry has already been discussed.

34. Dr. B. W. Green supports me in this view. 35. J. C. D. in Appendix Mrs. Cornelia P. Spencer's North Carolina History.

Norfolk and Sussex are flat counties of southeastern Virginia.

Norfolk, bordering on North Carolina, contains the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, which are opposite each other on the Elizabeth River, and are noted for their excellent harbors. The great Jamestown Exposition of 1907, held in Norfolk from lack of accommodations at Jamestown, but which commemorated the three hundredth anniversary of the landing of the English at James-town, has done much to make this part of Virginia famous.

Norfolk was the second county36 of the State in population in 1900, but is now undoubtedly first. The farmers there are unsurpassed for industry and thrift, and agriculture is followed in a highly scientific manner. The market for vegetables is the earliest in the State, and the "trucking" trade is a source of great wealth. Fish and oysters of excellent quality are abundant, and a large trade in them is carried on,

36. Henrico, with Richmond in it, was first in 1900, but Norfolk County gained on Henrico 2,500 population a year between 1890 and 1900, and in 1900 was only 281 behind.

Norfolk and Nansemond (to the west of Norfolk) counties contain the northern part of the Dismal Swamp; and Lake Drummond, so noted for the purity of its water, is about equally divided between the two counties.

Sussex County, a southwest extension of Surry County, from which it was formed, is watered by the Nottoway and Blackwater Rivers. Peanuts and cotton are raised, and the yellow pine furnishes valuable lumber.

Buckingham County is centrally located, and the James River forms its northern border. The soil of the river "low-grounds" is very rich, and the scenery, viewed from the bluffs on the James, is beautiful. Gold is mined here, though not extensively.

Bedford, with the James on its northeast border, and with tributaries of the Staunton River furnishing an abundant water supply elsewhere, is hardly surpassed in beauty of scenery by any Virginia county. The Peaks of Otter, with their extended view, are objects of great interest to the tourist. The hotel on the summit of Sharp Top, which is the peak commanding the best view, is generally open from May 1 to October 15. The number of guests that visit the hotel is large, and seems to be steadily increasing. The mountain air is peculiarly invigorating, and produces a keen appetite.

As has been intimated, 37 Bedford County may have been named after an English duke, John Russell, fourth Duke of Bedford. The duke was born in 17 10, and at the time Bed-ford county was formed, 1753, was well known in the public life of England. He had been for three years Secretary of State, 1748-175 1, and it is quite possible that the Virginians named Bedford County in his honor two years after he retired from his high position. All four of the Virginia counties named in the three years 1752-3-4 have names of English origin: Halifax, in 1752, after an English earl; Prince Edward, in 1753, after a son of the Prince of Wales; Bedford, in 1753, after the English shire or after the English duke; Sussex, in 1754, after an English shire. The Duke of Bedford was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 1756-61, and died in 1771, after holding several other high positions.

37. P. 86.

Of the Six other counties named after English shires, three - Stafford, Westmoreland, and Northumberland - are separated from Maryland by the Potomac; three - Lancaster, Essex, and Middlesex - lie along the banks of the Rappahannock.

With regard to five of these counties, there is hardly any doubt that they take their names from the shires in England; but Stafford County may have been named in another way, though in my classification I place it among the counties named after shires.

Stafford County was formed in 1666 while William Howard, Viscount Stafford, was prominent at the English court; and it may have been named after the English viscount instead of after the English shire. Howard was brought up a Roman Catholic, and was a Royalist during the civil war, though he was often in opposition after the monarchy was restored. He was executed for treason in 1680, on testimony gathered by Titus Oates. He protested his innocence to the last and there is good reason to believe his protests.

Stafford, in northern Virginia, is watered by the Potomac and Rappahannock. Like the other counties bordering on tidewater Potomac, Stafford has an abundance of fish.

Westmoreland Is between King George and Northumberland on the Potomac, and the Rappahannock is a part of its southwest border. Westmoreland is famous as the birthplace of great men. Here were born Washington and Monroe, each of whom served eight years as President of the United States. In this county is Stratford, the capacious mansion built for Thomas Lee, 38 the first native born American that became governor of Virginia. In Stratford were born Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee, distinguished signers of the Declaration of Independence. The great Confederate chieftain, Robert Edward Lee, was also born in this house. General Henry Lee, the father of Robert E. Lee, was also a native of Westmoreland.

Northumberland and Lancaster Counties adjoin the Chesapeake Bay, and carry on a vigorous trucking trade by means of the vessels that ply the bay and the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers.

Essex and Middlesex are two small tide-water counties on the south bank of the Rappahannock; the two counties together have an area of only 433 square miles, about the average area of a single county.

38. P. 146

A County Named After an English Island Isle of Wight, Organized 1634

The shire of Hants, sometimes called Hampshire, furnished the names for two Virginia counties. In 1754 Virginia had a county organized and called Hampshire, after the English shire itself. This county, now greatly reduced in size, is the oldest county within the limits of the present State of West Virginia. One of the New England States also is named after the English shire.

The Isle of Wight, near the mainland of England, is a part of Hants, a shire in the southern part of England. The county in southeastern Virginia probably received its name from this Isle of Wight. 39 The present name of the county was adopted in 1637, but for the first three years of its existence the county was called Warrosquyoake; 40 also spelled Warrasqueake. Warrosquyoake is the name of an Indian tribe whose king warned Captain Smith that Powhatan was not to be trusted too much, even if appearances should indicate that no harm was meditated. Smith was just then going to visit Powhatan in order to procure com. Powhatan tried hard to get Captain Smith into his power, but the Englishman was too good a strategist to be deceived by the pretensions of the Indian. Smithfield, the principal town of the county, was established in 1752, and takes its name from Arthur Smith, the original owner of the land.41 Near Smithfield is an old church, which is said to have been built by Sir Joseph Bridger in 1632. The church was originally a splendid structure, and for many years it stood in ruins, but has lately been repaired, and is used by the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

Among other industries, Smithfield contains the largest establishment in the State devoted to the peanut trade.

39. My theory supported by Dr. B. W. Green. 40. Cooke's "Virginia," pp. 50-51. 41. Whitehead's **Virginia Handbook," p. 266.

Counties Named After Eleven Revolutionary Patriots

Bland, Organized 1861 Campbell, Organized 1781 Carroll, Organized 1842 Clarke, Organized 1836 Franklin, Organized 1785 Greene, Organized 1838 Matthews, Organized 1790 Montgomery, Organized 1776 Pulaski, Organized 1839 Russell, Organized 1785 Warren, Organized 1837

Virginia played a leading part in the American Revolution, and the geographical names she then bestowed clearly indicate the zeal she manifested in the struggle for independence. Of the eleven counties formed during the ten years beginning in 1776, six42 bear the names of Revolutionary patriots, while one - Rockingham - is named after an English statesman who opposed England's hostile course towards the colonies. Virginia now has eleven counties named after Revolutionary patriots. Five of the eleven derive their names from natives of Virginia, and a brief sketch of these Virginians follows immediately below.

In 1861, when Bland County was organized from Wythe, Tazewell, and Giles Counties, the people of Virginia were feeling very much as they did during the troublous times at the beginning of the Revolution. In the days preceding the Revolution the colony of Virginia was suffering under the oppressive measures of a mother government that was disregarding the rights of her individual daughter colonies. In the days preceding the struggle of 1861-65 the State of Virginia was smarting under the helplessness of a central government that could not protect her individual rights as a State.43 In the days before Lexington, Virginia was fearing an armed invasion from the soldiers of England; in the days before Sumter, 44 Virginia was fearing an armed invasion from the soldiers of the United States.

42. Seven, if Greenville County is named after General Nathaniel Greene. See pp. 75-76. 43. Many Northern States had passed laws, in opposition to the United States law, that prevented Virginia and other Southern States from recovering runaway slaves. If the central government could not protect the individual States of the South in one domestic institution, - slavery - was it not natural for the South to suppose that other States' rights were also in danger?

44. Bland was organized March 26, Sumter was attacked April 12

Wythe, Tazewell, and Giles Counties were all named after American patriots that had signally emphasized their love for independence and for freedom from external interference in matters pertaining to local self-government. The county that was being taken from these three counties must also, in its name, emphasize Virginia's love for independence and for State sovereignty. Thus it came about that Virginia, in the troublous, soul-stirring times of 1861, named Bland county45 after the patriotic Virginian and American, Richard Bland.

Richard Bland, of Jordan's Point, Prince George County, was one of the most eminent statesmen of the Revolutionary period. He was of the same lineage as Giles Bland,46 who had perished as a martyr to liberty after Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 had been crushed; and in his veins flowed the blood of the kingly Powhatan. Bland's services to his State47 and his country were neither few nor unimportant. He was long a member of the House of Burgesses, he belonged to the Committee of Correspondence in 1773, was one of the seven delegates48 from Virginia to the General Congress that met in Philadelphia September 5,

45. The county clerk of Bland, 1895, suggested that the county was named after a Mr. Bland who was instrumental in having the county organized.

46. Bancroft's History of the United States, Vol. v. p. 43.

47. Then a colony.

48. The other delegates were Peyton Randolph, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Benjamin Harrison, and Edmund Pendleton.

1774, and was on the Committee of Safety in 1775-76. Only the infirmities of old age prevented his serving as a delegate to a General Congress in 1775. John Esten Cooke49 thus describes the old patriot: "Richard Bland, an old man nearly blind and wearing a bandage over his eyes, the author of the ‘Enquiry into the Rights of the American Colonies,' and called the Virginia Antiquary . . ." Bland early and vigorously expressed his belief that the American Assemblies had the exclusive right to tax the colonies, and he heartily opposed Great Britain in her policy of taxing the colonies without giving them representation. At the age of sixty-six, and in the year of the Declaration of Independence, 50 Richard Bland yielded up his spirit to his country's God, the Author of liberty.

The comparatively insignificant battle of King's Mountain possibly determined the names of two Virginia counties. Campbell and Russell counties are named after Generals William Campbell and William Russell, respectively, who especially distinguished themselves at King's Mountain. This battle was fought October 7, 1780, under circumstances that would naturally have given the victory to the unfatigued British troops. Campbell, with a regiment of 910 cavalrymen and 50 riflemen, marched fifty miles in eighteen hours, much of the time through rain, mud, and darkness. Without pausing for rest, he at once made a fierce attack on the British Colonel Ferguson, who commanded a force of 1105 men. Though the fighting was obstinate, Ferguson himself was slain, and all of his men either killed, wounded, or captured. Campbell's conduct at the battle caused him to be promoted from colonel to general, and to receive the thanks of the Legislature and of Congress. Though his military services elsewhere were decidedly meritorious, Campbell is known in history as the "hero of King's Mountain." He died of sickness in the fall of 1781, at the age of thirty-six.

49. Cooke's "Virginia," p. 406. 50. October 29, 1776.

General William Russell, born in Culpeper County, was twenty-seven years old when the large county in southwestern Virginia received his name in 1785. At the age of fifteen Russell began his military career by joining Daniel Boone's expedition against the Indians, and had already become a veteran soldier, by fighting against these redskins, when he fought under Campbell at King's Mountain. Russell was the first American to reach the summit of the mountain and to receive a sword from the enemy. His gallantry at the mountain earned him a promotion to the rank of captain. He fought the next March at Guilford Court House, and served afterwards in many campaigns against the Indians. Russell is more intimately connected with the history of Kentucky than of Virginia, for he removed to Kentucky after the Revolution, was a member of the Virginia legislature that separated Kentucky from the Old Dominion, and was, for many years, a legislator in the new State. In 1811 he succeeded General William Henry Harrison as commander of the frontier forces in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. Kentucky, as well as Virginia, has a county named after General Russell.

Matthews (also spelled Mathews) County was named in honor of General George Matthews, a distinguished officer of the Revolution. Matthews took a prominent part in the battle of Point Pleasant, 51 which was fought just before the Revolutionary War. The contest occurred at the junction of the Kanawha with the Ohio, and was the bloodiest ever fought on Virginia52 soil against the Indians. The battle raged stubbornly from sunrise till dark, but resulted at last in favor of the whites. Matthews afterwards fought at Brandywine and Germantown, and his regiment did much to save the American army from destruction at the latter place. He took no further part in the Revolution, for he was captured at Germantown and was not re-leased until the close of the war. He subsequently removed to Georgia, where he was elected to Congress. He was governor of his adopted State during 1793-96.

Clarke County, which really should be spelled without the e, is so named in honor of General George Rogers Clark, 53 a famous pioneer and Indian fighter. Although Clark was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, most of his notable exploits were done in Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. It was largely by his bravery and skill that Kentucky was freed from the ravages of hostile Indians. Through him, also, the territory north of the Ohio River was secured to the United States when Great Britain made peace with us in 1783. This was because Clark had obtained possession of posts that gave him control over that country. Through his influence Kentucky was organized as a Virginia county in 1776, and after it became a State an east-central county was named Clark in his honor. Louisville, Kentucky, was founded by General Clark. George was one of six brothers, 54 four of whom attained prominence in the Revolution. His younger brother William was joint commander with Captain Lewis on an exploring tour to the Pacific in 1804. On this tour Clark was of great service in negotiations with the Indians. Clarke's Fork and Lewis's Fork of the Columbia River are named after these explorers.

51. See Howe, p. 305, for a good description of the battle. 52. Including West Virginia, for Point Pleasant is in West Virginia.

53. Clark spelled his name without an e as may be seen from many of his letters, which are in the State Library in Richmond. The Virginia County, strange to say, though named in his honor, is generally spelled Clarke. Ohio and Indiana have Clarke counties, both probably named after General Clark, and Illinois has a Clark county, also probably named after the same man. Missouri has a Clark county, so called ("American Cyclopedia”) in honor of George's brother, William Clark. Some of the States, then, are inaccurate in spelling county names Clarke while intending for them to honor George Rogers Clark by the county name.

54. American Encyclopedia George was born 1742, died 1808 or 1817; William was born 1770, died 1838.

Bland and Russell counties, in southwest Virginia, between the Blue Ridge and Alleghany mountains, have their surfaces broken by towering peaks and swift streams. Bland is between Giles and Tazewell on the West Virginia border, and is drained by New River waters. Russell County, to the west of the Clinch Mountains, is drained chiefly by the Clinch River.

Campbell County is in Piedmont Virginia, and is drained by the Staunton and the James. This county contains Lynchburg, 55 which, next to Roanoke, is the largest city west of Richmond in the State.

Clarke County, taken from Frederick in 1836, when William Clark, brother to George Rogers Clark, was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, has West Virginia on its northern border. It is hemmed in on the east by the Shenandoah Mountains, and the Shenandoah River flows through it.

Matthews, one of the few tidewater counties with a name distinctively American, is nearly surrounded by the Chesapeake Bay and its arms.

Montgomery, Pulaski, and Warren Counties are named in honor of men that fought and fell in the cause of American freedom.

55. Until the census of 1900 Lynchburg was larger than Roanoke.

All three are mountainous counties in the elevated portion of Virginia lying between the Blue Ridge and Alleghany mountains. Montgomery and Pulaski, in southwestern Virginia, are separated from each other by the New River, whose waters drain all of Pulaski and a considerable part of Montgomery. Warren lies between the Blue Ridge and Massanutten mountains in northern Virginia, and is traversed by the Shenandoah River.

General Richard Montgomery, born in Ireland in 1736, had a short but brilliant career in the cause of the struggling colonies. He was put in command of an expedition sent against Canada, and soon obtained pos-session of Montreal and other important points. After a month's siege a desperate attempt was made, December 31, 1775, to capture Quebec by assault. Montgomery was killed while cheering on his men, and they, in dismay at his death, at once retreated. In grateful recognition of his services Congress erected a monument to his memory in St. Paul's churchyard. New York City. Under this monument lies the dust of the fallen hero. Virginia is but one of many States to have a county named after General Montgomery.

Count Pulaski, of Poland, who had already become a veteran soldier by service in Europe, was induced by Benjamin Franklin to join the American army in 1777. The Polish count and the French Marquis de Lafayette were together in their first battle for the colonies at Brandywine. After two years of fighting in our behalf, Pulaski fell mortally wounded in an ill-timed attack on Savannah, October 9, 1779. The responsibility for making the attack does not belong to Pulaski; he was simply obeying the orders of his commander. Exactly forty-six years after his death his friend Lafayette laid the comer stone of the statue of Liberty that was erected in Savannah in joint honor of the Polish nobleman and of General Nathaniel Greene. It may be of interest to note that the capital of Arkansas is in Pulaski County, and that Georgia and other States have counties named in honor of the brave foreigner.

Virginia named a county after the illustrious French marquis, but Fayette is now a county of the State of West Virginia.

Among those who gave their lives for American independence, none was more generally beloved than the talented Massachusetts physician. General Joseph Warren. From 1766 he was energetic in the cause of the colonies against the oppressive measures of Great Britain. In 1774 he was the virtual head of Massachusetts, for he was president of the State Congress and chairman of the Committee of Public Safety. It was by Warren's orders that Dawes and Paul Revere set out on their famous midnight ride for Lexington. Longfellow's stirring poem tells how these horsemen warned the Americans in time to meet the hostile British. Warren fought at Lexington, and two months later fell at Bunker Hill. The British General Howe declared his death to be an off-set to the loss of five hundred British soldiers. At Bunker Hill stands a monument erected to his memory. It was unveiled June 17, 1857, the eighty-second anniversary of his death.

Five of the six Virginia counties named during the seven years ending in 1842 were named after American patriots of Revolutionary fame: Clarke in 1836, Warren in 1837, Greene in 1838, Pulaski in 1839, and Carroll in 1842. Moreover, all four of the counties formed during that time within the limits of the present State of West Virginia - Braxton in 1836, Mercer in 1837 - Marion and Wayne in 1842 - take their names from Revolutionary patriots, Roanoke, formed in 1838 and having an Indian name, is the only one of ten Virginia - West Virginia counties formed within that period of seven years and not named in honor of Revolutionary heroes.

When Greene County, then, was formed in 1838, the Virginians seemed to be especially desirous of remembering the heroes of '76 in their county names. If, as has been suggested,56 Greenville county had been named in honor of General Nathaniel Greene in the latter part of 1780, the fact had been over-looked or disregarded in after years, for, fifty-eight years later, in 1838, Greene county received the name of the patriot from Rhode Island. If both Greene and Greenville counties are named after General Greene, he is the only American besides Patrick Henry57 to be honored in the naming of more than one Virginia County.

General Nathaniel Greene58 of Rhode Island served with distinction during the entire Revolution. His services in that war probably rank second to Washington's only in value. He took a prominent part in many of the leading battles of the north, and, by his successful stand at the battle of Brandywine, saved the American army from destruction. In the autumn of 1780, after he had been transferred to the command of the army of the South, by a skillful campaign of hard-fought battles he in ten months' time recovered all of the Carolinas and Georgia except the three seaports of Charleston, Wilmington, and Savannah. The scene of the hotly contested battle of Guilford Court House is now called Greensboro, in honor of General Greene. The Carolinas and Georgia granted him valuable property, and Congress gave him a medal in recognition of his services. After the war he visited his native State, but settled in Georgia in 1785 on lands that had been given to him by that State. He lived less than a year in his new home, for he died of sunstroke June 19, 1786, at the age of forty-four.

Greene, which is decidedly smaller than the average Virginia County, is just east of the Blue Ridge and is watered by the Rivanna and Rapidan Rivers.

Charles Carroll, of Maryland, and Benjamin Franklin, of Massachusetts, are each honored with a county name in southwest Virginia.

Carroll County contains some of the most elevated land in the State, and is enclosed on two sides by ranges of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It is drained by New River waters. Franklin is separated from Carroll by Floyd, and has the main Blue Ridge range on its western border. The county contains 445 square miles, and is drained by the Staunton and Dan rivers.

For over two hundred years the name of Carroll has been especially prominent in the State of Maryland. Though many of his name are held in high esteem, Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, is easily first of them all in the love and respect of his countrymen. His naturally strong business capacity was rendered stronger by the opportunities afforded by a college education and by travel in Europe. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was considered the richest man in the colonies, and was probably worth two million dollars. During the Revolution Carroll served in the legislative halls of State and nation, and was one of the framers of Maryland's State constitution. The Maryland delegates to the General Congress of 1776 had been instructed by the legislature to disavow any claim of independence, but Carroll had these instructions removed and was himself one of the first to sign the Declaration of Independence. Until 1801 he was busily engaged in public affairs, but he then retired to a well-earned repose at his magnificent country estate near Baltimore. Many friends used to visit him there to enjoy the society of their cultured and generous host. At the death of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, on July 4, 1826, Carroll was left as the sole survivor of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Exactly two years later he made has last public appearance, when he laid the comer stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. He died in 1832 at the age of ninety-five. Ten years later the Virginia County was named in honor of the venerable Maryland patriot.

Three of Carroll's granddaughters married English noblemen, and were distinguished at the court of George IV as "The American Graces" - a title fairly earned by their attractive manners and great beauty. In 1876 Governor John Carroll of Maryland, a great-grandson of the illustrious Charles, took a prominent part in the Philadelphia Centennial of American Independence.

Virginia is but one of many States to name a county after the patriotic Ben Franklin. When Franklin County was formed in 1785 the fame of Dr. Benjamin Franklin was well established both in Europe and America. As the founder of the University of Pennsylvania, as inventor of the lightning rod, as opposers of the Stamp Act, and as signer of the Declaration of Independence, the great Bostonian proved his love for learning, science, and native land.

56. P. 75. 57. P. 144 58. See Pp. 75-76 also

Counties Named After Seven Virginians Wythe Organized 1789 Grayson, Organized 1792 Tazewell, Organized 1799 Scott, Organized 1814 Smyth Organized 1831 Alexandria, Organized 1847 Dickenson, Organized 1880

Wythe county, and Wytheville, its county seat, are named after George Wythe, another signer of the paper that declared the United States free and independent. Wythe was probably the most eminent Virginia jurist of the eighteenth century. During the Revolution he was an ardent and active patriot.59 He helped George Mason and Richard Henry Lee to frame Virginia's State constitution in 1776, 60 and soon afterwards aided Thomas Jefferson and Edmund Pendleton in the revision of the State laws. For more than twenty years Wythe was sole chancellor61 of Virginia, and he is generally known as Chancellor Wythe. Wythe ranked high among scholars, and by Jefferson was regarded as the best Greek and Latin scholar of Virginia.

59. See Wythe in American Supplement to "Encyclopedia Britannica. 60. Wythe, "Appleton’s American Biography." 61. An office corresponding to the presidency of the Court of Appeals; it was abolished at Wythe's death.

From 1779 to 1789 Wythe was Professor of Law at William and Mary College, and many of his pupils afterwards attained great eminence: Jefferson62 - to whom he bequeathed his great library - and Madison subsequently became Presidents of the United States; Giles held the leadership of the Democratic-Republican party in the national Senate for seven years, and was governor of Virginia for three years; John Marshall was Chief Justice of the United States for thirty-five years, and gained a reputation in law that has certainly not been surpassed, and probably has not been equaled, within the United States.

Jefferson, Madison, Giles, and Marshall were each honored by Virginia in the name of a county, though Jefferson and Marshall became a part of West Virginia when that State was formed.

Chancellor Wythe's residence in Williamsburg is still standing.

Grayson and Tazewell Counties were named in honor of two United States Senators from Virginia, who died shortly before the counties were organized.

The Virginia legislature of 1782-83 was remarkable for the entrance into State councils of several men who afterwards became quite distinguished. Among others were John Marshall, the future Chief Justice, and William Grayson, 63 after whom Grayson County is named. Together with Patrick Henry and others, Grayson vigorously opposed the ratification by Virginia of the United States Constitution. In 1788 Grayson and Richard Henry Lee were elected as the first two United States Senators from Virginia under the Constitution, over Madison, who was then the Federal leader in the State. Senator Gray-son only lived to serve two years of the term to which he had been elected.

Tazewell County was formed in 1799 and named in honor of Senator Henry Tazewell, of Virginia, who died in that year. In 1775, at the age of twenty-two, Tazewell became a member of the Virginia legislature, and served until 1785. He was one of the committee64 of 1776 that drew up the Declaration of Rights and adopted the State constitution, and from 1785 till 1794 he held honorable positions in the Virginia judiciary. In the latter year he was chosen to the United States Senate, and held the office till his death.

62. Jefferson took law under Wythe by private instruction about 1760. 63. Not to be confounded with William J. Grayson, after whom a Kentucky county is named. 64. See Vol. i. p. 409, Henry's "Life of Henry," for a list of the thirty-two men that composed this committee.

Even more distinguished than Henry Tazewell was his son, Littleton Waller Tazewell, who was a member of the State legislature, a United States Senator, and governor of Virginia for the two years ending April 30, 1836.

Wythe County, situated among the mountains of southwest Virginia, is separated from West Virginia by Bland County and from North Carolina by Grayson. Like its eastern neighbors, Pulaski and Carroll, Wythe County is drained entirely by New River waters.

Grayson County is included with Floyd and Carroll between two forks of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and the three are known as the Blue Ridge counties. These counties are among the most elevated in the State; and Mount Balsam in Grayson County, with an elevation of 5700 feet above sea level, is said to be the highest peak in Virginia.

Tazewell County, which adjoins West Virginia, is famous for its timber, minerals, and beautiful scenery. The county is drained chiefly by Clinch River waters, which flow southwest, and by tributaries of the New River, which flows northeast; "Burke's Garden" is a beautiful and fertile valley of about thirty thousand acres in the eastern part of the county. It is surrounded on all except its north side by lofty mountains; from that side flow the headwaters of Wolf Creek, a large tributary of the New River.

Scott and Smyth counties are named in honor of two Virginia generals, Winfield Scott and Alexander Smyth.

General Winfield Scott was born in Petersburg, Va., June 13, 1786, and lived to see the end of the great Civil War of 1861-65. Scott took an active and honorable part in the War of 1812 against Great Britain, and won still greater fame by his victories in the Mexican War; the infirmities of old age prevented him from being anything more than an interested spectator in the war between the States.

He entered the army at the age of twenty-two. Early in 1814 he began a vigorous and systematic training of the troops, and in a few months' time he had a well-drilled army with which to attack the British in Canada. On July 5 of that year he obtained an important victory in Canada, at the Battle of Chippewa, and twenty days afterwards he fought the memorable drawn battle of Lundy's Lane.

This engagement, sometimes called Bridgewater, began at five o'clock in the afternoon and raged until midnight. One man out of every five engaged was either killed or wounded. The scene of the encounter was made more impressive because the din of conflict was mingled with the sullen roar of Niagara Falls. These two battles greatly encouraged the Americans, and established the fame of the brave American commander, who was soon offered the position of Secretary of War by President Madison, Scott, however, declining the President's offer. The naming of Scott County in 1814 was a well-deserved tribute to the gallant Virginian at the hands of his native State. His signal victories in the Mexican War earned him the Whig nomination for the Presidency in 1852, but he was defeated by Franklin Pierce, the Democratic' nominee. Scott held the chief command of the American army for twenty years, but was forced to resign his position in 1861 on account of failing health.

Like Grayson and Tazewell, Smyth County was named in honor of a prominent Virginia statesman whose career had been recently ended by death. General Alexander Smyth, but he early removed to Virginia, where he entered upon the practice of law. For many years he was a member of the State legislature, and in 1808 Jefferson appointed him a colonel of a United States regiment in the Southwest. He was afterwards made general, was sent against Canada in 1812, but failed and was removed from the army. He seems, however, to have retained public esteem, for, after serving again as a State legislator, he was elected to Congress in 1817, where he served almost continuously until his death, in 1830. Smyth County was named in the following year for the citizen, soldier, and statesman who had so long identified himself with the interests of his adopted State.

Scott County contains a wonderful natural tunnel that extends for 150 yards through one of the spurs of Powell's Mountain.65 In height and width the tunnel varies greatly, 100 feet being probably the maximum height, and 150 feet the greatest width. The Virginia and Southwestern Railroad runs trains through the tunnel, while outside, overhead, a wagon road crosses it. Stock Creek, a tributary of the Clinch River, flows through the tunnel. Scott County lies between the counties of Lee and Washington, on the Tennessee line and is watered by the Clinch and Holston Rivers.

65. Whitehead's "Virginia Handbook," p. 53, quoting the Bristol News, calls the tunnel 300 yards long; but see "Martin's Virginia Gazetteer," pp. 442-444.

Smyth is situated north of Washington and Grayson, and is divided by Holston River waters and the mountain into three distinct sections, which differ greatly in natural features and products.

Alexandria County doubtless derives its name from its chief city. The city itself was originally known as Belhaven, but the name was changed to Alexandria in honor of the Alexander family, of whom the oldest was John Alexander, a citizen of the place. John's son, William Thornton Alexander, was a prominent business man of a hundred years ago. The city was incorporated in 1779. The present county was for many years a part of the District of Columbia, but was receded to Virginia in 1847. Alexandria is the smallest of Virginia counties, having a land surface of only thirty-two square miles. It is surrounded on all except its north side by Fairfax County, where the Potomac River forms its boundary.

Dickenson County is named in honor of William J. Dickenson, a delegate from Russell to the Virginia Assembly at the time of Dickenson's formation in 1 880. After the Assembly had voted that the name of the new county should be Dickenson, the Senate substituted Stonewall for Dickenson - a tribute to General "Stonewall" Jackson. Virginia had already named a county Jackson, 66 after President Andrew Jackson, hence the name "Stonewall" would be more unmistakably a tribute to Thomas J. Jackson than the name Jackson itself. The Assembly, however, rejected the Senate's amendment, and the name Dickenson was adopted.

The Dickenson family has always been at the front in public affairs in that narrow strip of Virginia lying south of West Virginia and east of Kentucky. William J. Dickenson's grandfather, Henry Dickenson, located in that section in 1770 and in 1785 helped to organize Russell County, serving as Russell's first county clerk. William's father, Major James Dickenson, was several times sheriff of Russell and for two terms served in the Virginia Assembly. William J. Dickenson himself, after studying law and while County Attorney for Russell, was elected to the Assembly, serving two terms before the Civil War and six terms after it, retiring from the Assembly in 1882. Though a strong Union man and bitterly opposed to secession, Dickenson during the war remained quietly on his farm, taking care of his aged parents. At the age of eighty he died at Castlewood, Russell County, April 5, 1907, at the home of his nephew, Hon. R. Walter Dickenson, now State Senator from Russell, Dickenson, Tazewell, and Buchanan counties. He never married. His youngest brother, Thomas T. Dickenson, is still living at Castlewood.

Dickenson County, which is drained by the Russell Fork of the Big Sandy River, is separated from Kentucky by the Cumberland Mountains. Dickenson is the youngest county in the State by nineteen years. Bland being next youngest. Like other youths, however, Dickenson has great possibilities, for the letterhead of the county clerk informs us that Dickenson County is the richest undeveloped county in coal and mineral and hardwood in the South.

66. Now a part of West Virginia.

Virginia Governors and United States Presidents

Counties Named After Thirteen Virginia Governors

Culpeper, Organized 1748 Spotsylvania, Organized 1720 Goochland Organized 1727 Dinwiddie, Organized 1752 Fauquier Organized 1759 Botetourt, Organized 1769 Henry, Organized 1776 Patrick, Organized 1790 Nelson, Organized 1807 Lee, Organized 1792 Page, Organized 1831 Giles, Organized 1806 Floyd. Organized 1831 Wise, Organized 1855

In fourteen of her counties Virginia reproduces the names of her governors. Botetourt, Culpeper, Dinwiddie, Fauquier, Goochland, and Spotsylvania recall colonial times; while Floyd, Giles, Patrick and Henry, Lee, Nelson, Page, and Wise date after the Declaration of Independence.

With the exception of Botetourt, these colonial counties lie east of Virginia's center. Fauquier and Culpeper are in the north near the headwaters of the Rappahannock. Spotsylvania, to the southeast of these two counties, contains the sources of the Mat, the Ta, the Po and the Ny Rivers, which unite in Caroline county to form the Mattapony River. Dinwiddie is in southeastern Virginia, and is drained by the Nottoway and Appomattox Rivers. Goochland is on the north bank of the James between Fluvanna and Henrico.

Fourteen counties, as two are named after Patrick Henry.

Botetourt lies on both sides of the James, wedged in between the Alleghany and Blue Ridge Mountains.

Lord Culpeper, who served from 1680 to 1683 as the governor of Virginia, is chiefly notable for the immense tracts of land he owned. In 1673 Charles II of England granted Virginia for a period of thirty-one years to Culpeper and the Earl of Arlington. Two years afterward Culpeper bought the rights to the lands lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, and was appointed governor of Virginia for life. He did not come to Virginia to assume his office until 1680. Though a shrewd and capable governor, Culpeper was convicted of bribery at the end of three years, and was thereupon deposed from office. Culpeper County was named after Governor Culpeper in 1748, a few years after his grandson, Lord Fairfax, 67 had made his home on the vast estate inherited from his grandfather.

Of the six colonial governors who gave their names to Virginia counties, Alexander Spotswood, 68 with his spacious and hospitable country home, is probably the most interesting character. While governor he made an exploring tour through the country from Williams-burg across the mountains to the Shenandoah River. The party had a jolly time and were gone six weeks. On their return each tourist received a golden horseshoe as a souvenir of the trip, and thus was instituted the order of the "Knights of the Horse Shoe." A horse-shoe was chosen as the badge of knighthood because the horses, which at home needed no shoes, had to be shod in order to be able to travel over the rocky regions of the mountains. In 1724 Governor Spotswood had above the falls on the Rappahannock River an iron furnace, considered by himself as the first regular iron furnace in the United States.69

Sir William Gooch had already won fame as a soldier in Europe when he was chosen governor of the Old Dominion in 1727. Two counties were established that year, and one of them was named Goochland in honor of the new governor. Gooch greatly endeared himself to the people by his wise administration as governor, and the Virginians bade him a tearful farewell when he sailed for his English home after twenty years of service in the colony. The flourishing city of Staunton in Augusta County is named after Lady Staunton, the beloved wife of Governor Gooch.

67. Pp. 69-70 for Fairfax. 68. Spelled with one t, and so the county should be spelled. 69. But there was a furnace for smelting iron ore at Falling Creek, in Chesterfield County, in 1619. It was destroyed and the people killed in the Indian massacre, of March 22, 1622. There is a pig of the iron with the furnace mark in the State Library in Richmond. Robert Dinwiddie became governor of Virginia in 1752, and a county was named after him the same year. Dinwiddie's term lasted six years. Though neither a good nor a popular executive, Dinwiddie showed discernment by appointing young Washington to important commands. The latter-s trip beyond Fort Duquesne was undertaken at Dinwiddie's instigation.

The Virginians again complimented their chief executive in 1759 when they named Fauquier County in honor of Francis Fauquier, who had lately become governor. Fauquier was a broad-minded scholar of culture and ability, and his society was greatly enjoyed by the youthful but appreciative Jefferson. Though Fauquier was watchful of the interest of the home government in England, he had also the welfare of the colonists at heart. His term was ended by death in 1768.

Lord Norberne Berkeley, Baron of Botetourt, became governor of Virginia in 1768, and held the office until his death in October, 1770. Though the opposition between the Virginians and the mother country caused Botetourt to use strongly repressive measures to-wards Virginia, the baron was a true friend to the colony. He was much mourned at his death and the legislature honored his memory with a marble statue, which is still standing at William and Mary College. The beautiful county in western Virginia received his name the year before his death. Fincastle, the county seat of Botetourt, takes its name from Lord Botetourt's estate in England. Fincastle County was formed in 1772, but ceased to exist four years later, when it was divided into Washington, Montgomery, and Kentucky counties - the last named afterwards became Kentucky State.

Berkeley County, now of West Virginia, was organized as a Virginia county in 1772. The name was nearly certainly derived from the late Governor Botetourt, Lord Norberne Berkeley, though I have no authority to cite in support of this theory. On the other hand, "Appleton's American Cyclopedia" says that the county was named after "Governor Berkeley." This must mean Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia for twenty years or more in the seventeenth century. William Berkeley is the only person that was generally known as Governor Berkeley; Norberne Berkeley is known in history as Governor Botetourt.

Several considerations seem to throw doubt on the cyclopedia's statement. The latter part of Berkeley's administration was marked by great cruelty to the followers of Nathaniel Bacon, and Berkeley was recalled to England at the request of the Virginians. While the governor had been very popular before Bacon's rebellion, was it likely that Virginia should wait ninety-five years after Berkeley's death and then give a county name for a governor that had been hateful to many in the colony for his acts of tyranny?

In the Virginians' attitude towards Lord Botetourt it seems more probable that Berkeley County should have been named after the baron's ordinary name, Norberne Berkeley. Fincastle County was named after his English estate the same year Berkeley County was organized, and Botetourt County had been named after the baron himself only three years before - thus proving the affection of Virginians for him. But, even if Berkeley County is named after Sir William Berkeley, the naming was probably done to reflect honor on Lord Norberne Berkeley, for Norberne was a direct descendant of John, elder brother of William.

Culpeper, Orange, and Fauquier organized a famous regiment of "Minute Men"70 at the beginning of the Revolution. The Culpeper corps carried an aggressive-looking flag, which had depicted on it a rattlesnake with twelve rattles - the head for Virginia, a rattle for each of the other colonies. On the flag were the words: "The Culpeper Minute Men. Liberty or Death. Don't Tread on Me.'' The Culpeper men wore green hunting shirts and were otherwise attired so as to present a savage and formidable appearance.

Fauquier contains some of the best farming lands in the State. Botetourt is rich in minerals and well adapted to stock raising. Dinwiddie contains Petersburg, the third city of the State in size.

The eight counties that Virginia has named after her governors since she cast off allegiance to England are west of the State's center, and all of them are more or less mountainous. Patrick and Henry are on the North Carolina border, and are watered by Carolina Streams. Lee, the most western county of the State, separates Kentucky from Tennessee, and is drained by Russell's River, whose waters reach the Tennessee. Wise is north of Lee, and also borders on Kentucky; it is drained by Kentucky streams and by Clinch River waters. Giles, bordering on West Virginia, is bisected by the New River. Floyd is watered chiefly by the Little River, a tributary of the New, and lies northwest of Patrick County. Nelson, with its west-central position, is beautified on the northwest by the Blue Ridge Mountains, on the southwest by the historic James. Page, in the Shenandoah Valley, is noted for the wonderful Luray Caverns.

Of Virginia's governors none deserve a higher rank than Patrick Henry. His long life almost coincides with that of Washing-ton - he was born four years after, and died six months before, the President. Both were Virginia born, and both spent their last days in their native State.

It would be hard to overestimate the value of Henry's services to his State and his country. Before the Revolution his eloquence did much to secure the repeal of the odious Stamp Act, and when the war was on hand he kindled a fiery zeal for independence in the hearts of his countrymen. Henry was instrumental in getting the Virginia delegates to propose independence in the national Congress of 1776, 71 and he helped to secure the guarantee of religious freedom in the State72 and the national73 constitutions.

After perfecting for Virginia the first writ-ten State constitution in America, the Williamsburg State convention ended its work of June 29, 1776, by electing Patrick Henry the first governor of the new State,74 and the legislature of that year honored Henry by giving his name to the large county that had just been formed from Pittsylvania. After Henry had retired from the Virginia legislature of 1790, a new county was formed from a part of Henry County, and the ex-legislator was again honored in Patrick County’s name. Henry was unanimously reelected governor four times, and in 1796, six years after his retirement to private life, was again chosen chief executive of Virginia, but declined to serve on account of the infirmities of age. The Virginia governors were then elected by the State legislature for a term of one year, and were not eligible for more than three successive terms. No other governor of Virginia has served as many terms as Henry, 75 nor does any other governor of the State have more than one county named in his honor. Henry was twice offered a United States senatorship, and also important offices under President Washington, but he declined them all.

70. Howe's "Virginia," pp. 237-8. 71. See Henry's "Henry," Vol. i. pp. 332-34. 72. Ibid, Vol. i. pp. 431-32. 73. Ibid, Vol. ii. pp. 338-89. 74. Virginia was a colony, subject to Great Britain, before she declared her Independence, 75. Unless it was Governor Botetourt; see pp. 139-141. Nelson County was formed in 1807, and was named after General Thomas Nelson, who was Virginia's third governor after she had become a State. While Nelson was of greater service as a legislator than as a soldier, he took honorable rank in both capacities. As a member of the Virginia legislature he helped to frame the State constitution, and afterwards signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1776 he was Henry's chief competitor for the governorship, and in June, 1 78 1, he succeeded Jefferson in that office. At the siege of Yorktown, where he commanded the Virginia militia, Governor Nelson manifested a noble example of unselfish patriotism. His house was the largest and best in Yorktown, and thinking, therefore, that General Cornwallis probably had his head-quarters there. Nelson had the building bombarded, 76 offering a reward to the cannoneer who should put the first ball through it. Nelson's term of governorship lasted not quite six months, as failing health forced him to resign, and the remaining eight years of his life were spent in retirement. He died in York, the county that had given him birth fifty-one years before. The statues of six honored sons of Virginia stand around the lifelike equestrian statue of Washington in the capitol square of Richmond. These statues commemorate the lives and services of General Andrew Lewis, so distinguished in Indian warfare; George Mason; Chief Justice Marshall; Patrick Henry; President Jefferson, and Governor Thomas Nelson.

Lee County received its name in 1792, from General Henry Lee, of Westmoreland, who had just become governor of Virginia. Virginia had special reason at that time to honor the name of Lee, as Richard Henry Lee had just retired to private life after thirty-six years of arduous public service, while Francis Lightfoot Lee and Arthur Lee, brothers of Richard Henry Lee, had also endeared them-selves to the State by careers of usefulness and honor.

General Henry Lee, second cousin to Richard Henry, rendered valuable service in the Revolution by his brave and well-trained "legion" of cavalry. Lee's "Memoirs of '76" tells of Revolutionary scenes. Lee was a member of the congress that adopted the Constitution of the United States, and he urged its ratification by Virginia in 1788. He became governor of the State December 1, 179 1, and held the office three years.

Three Lees have been Virginia's chief executive: Thomas Lee, 77 President of the Colonial Council, was governor from September, 1749, to February, 1751; General Henry Lee, December 1, 1791, to December 1, 17, 94; and General Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of General R. E. Lee and grandson of Governor Henry Lee, was governor for the four years ending December 31, 1889.

At the death of Washington Congress appointed Henry Lee to prepare a eulogy on the great American. Lee's speech contained the now famous words, "First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his country-men."

76. The Governor's house was struck by the shot, but is still standing and has people living in it. 77. Sec p. 92 for Thomas Lee.

Page County was named in 1831 in honor of Governor John Page, whose term of office expired twenty-six years before the county was organized.

John Page, of Gloucester County, Virginia, attended William and Mary College with Thomas Jefferson, and the two students formed there a lasting friendship for each other. During the Revolution Page proved of great service to the State as lieutenant-governor and as a member of the committee of public safety. He was in Congress during Washington's entire Presidency, and was governor of Virginia for the three years ending in 1805. When Page retired from the governorship, his old friend, President Jefferson, appointed him to a public office, which he held until his death in 1808.

Those who have read the delightful stories of Thomas Nelson Page will, perhaps, take a greater interest in Governor John Page when they learn that he was the great-grand-father of the author of "Marse Chan" and "Meh Lady."

William Branch Giles had been for two years the leader of the Democratic Party in the United States Senate when Giles County was named after him in 1806. In 1791 he was elected to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Colonel Theodoric Bland, and served continuously in that body for eight years. He resigned from Congress in 1798 and became a member of the Virginia legislature, where he helped Madison to pass the celebrated "Resolutions of '98." These Resolutions strongly emphasized the rights of the individual States, and indicated the dangerous tendencies that lurk in a government that has too great power over the parts composing that government. Giles was chosen United States Senator in 1804, and at once became the leader of the Democratic Party in the Senate. After holding the leadership seven years, he lost it because of his opposition to war with Great Britain. He retired from the Senate to private life in 1815, but entered politics again in 1826 as a member of the Virginia legislature. The next year he was made governor of Virginia, and served until 1830.

Floyd County takes its name from John Floyd, who succeeded Mr. Giles as governor of Virginia. Floyd was a member of Congress from Virginia from 1830 to 1834 He enjoyed the personal friendship of Presidents Jefferson, Madison, and Jackson, but opposed Jackson's election for a second term because of the repressive measures the President used against South Carolina. South Carolina seems to have appreciated Floyd's pronounced States' rights views, for she gave him her vote for President in 1832.

It is rather unusual for father and son to become governors of the same State, but John Buchanan Floyd, son of Governor John Floyd, was governor of Virginia from 1849 to 1852. When James Buchanan became President in 1857 he appointed young Floyd Secretary of War.

Henry Alexander Wise, of Accomac County, Virginia, who had served eleven years in Congress and for three years as minister to Brazil, was nominated by the Democrats in 1855 for governor of Virginia. He began the campaign under heavy disadvantages, but his vigorous and skillful canvass, during which he traveled over three thousand miles78 and made more than fifty speeches, resulted

78. It must be remembered that the facilities for travel are much better in 1908 than they were in 1855. Railroads were scarce then.

in his election by ten thousand majority. Wise County was named that year in honor of the energetic governor-elect. He held the office four years, and, like young Floyd, entered the Confederate army. Neither man was especially fortunate in his military career: in their case the laurels earned in peace were greater than those won in war.

Giles, Nelson, and Page Counties are remarkable for natural objects of great interest.

In Giles, about a thousand feet above the base of Salt Pond Mountain, and three thousand feet above sea-level, is a wonderful sheet of water known as Mountain Lake.79 The lake is three-fourths of a mile long, half a mile wide, and from fifty to sixty feet deep. The water is so transparent that the bottom can be seen in every part.

In the southwestern comer of Nelson County is probably the highest waterfall east of the Mississippi River. Crab Tree Falls starts from the top of Pinnacle Peak and descends three thousand feet in going a horizontal distance of two thousand feet; The highest cataract, the "Grand Cataract,'’ makes a fall of five hundred feet; the lowest falls is about fifty feet high. Crab Tree Creek, on which the falls is located, flows into Tye River a few miles from the cataract. The approach to the falls is very difficult, but the numerous visitors are well repaid for their trouble by the magnificent view obtained.

Page County are the Luray Caverns, whose "wonders surpass those of any other caverns known to man." The most remarkable of these curious examples of nature's handiwork were not discovered until 1878. They are now fitted up with electric lights, that their wonderful formation may be fully appreciated by the numerous sightseers who visit them.

79. Well described in Howe's "Virginia History" and Martin's "Virginia Gazetteer." Whitehead's "Virginia Handbook" describes Mountain Lake (formerly called Salt Pond), Crab Tree Falls, and Luray Caves.

Counties Named After Three Presidents

Washington, Organized 1776 Madison, Organized 1792 Buchanan, Organized 1858

Buchanan, Madison, and Washington counties bear the names of United States Presidents, though neither Madison nor Washington had attained to that office when the counties were named in their honor.

Buchanan forms a sharp point of the State that borders on Kentucky and West Virginia, and is drained by the Big Sandy River. Madison, a small county in north-central Virginia, is bounded on the west by the Blue Ridge, which separates it from Page. Rapidan waters drain most of this mountainous county. Washington, in the southwest, is beautified by the attractive river and mountain scenery of the Holston River valley.

Buchanan County was organized and named in 1858, the year after James Buchanan of Pennsylvania was inaugurated President. It was the last Virginia County to receive a President's name.

Madison County was named in 1792, when James Madison of Virginia was the acknowledged leader of the Democrats in Congress, his previous public career gaining for him this leadership. He helped to secure religious freedom for Virginia, and strongly supported^ the Constitution, both when it was adopted by Congress and on its ratification by Virginia. In addition to the other high honors accorded him, Madison was afterwards twice President. He lived to the ripe old age of eighty-five, and died in Virginia, the State that had given him birth.

The universal esteem in which our first President is held is well proven by the great number of places that bear the name of Wash-ington. Virginia, though the first, 80 is but one of thirty-one States to have a Washington county. Seven of the original thirteen States thus honor the illustrious Virginian, while South Dakota, Idaho, and Oregon, in a similar way and also revere his name. Post offices in twenty-eight different States and Territories, the capital city of our great Republic, and a large State on the Pacific Ocean also bear the name of the one, who seems, in very truth, to be the "Father of His Country."

80Madison afterwards opposed the Constitution, and helped to secure a number of amendments that more fully guaranteed States' rights. The Legislature established the county in October, 1776; the first county court was held January 28, 1777.

Indian Names and Natural Features

Nine Indian Names Nansemond, Organized 1640 Accomac, Organized 1672 Nottoway, Organized 1788 Rappahannock. Organized 1831 Appomattox, Organized 1845 Powhatan, Organized 1777 Shenandoah Organized 1772 Alleghany, Organized 1822 Roanoke, Organized 1838

When Captain John Smith first came to Jamestown, in 1607, about fifty Indian tribes lived between the sea and the mountains of Virginia. Most of the tribes belonged to the one or the other of two great confederacies. Thirty tribes under the chieftain Powhatan lived south of the Potomac, between the sea and the falls of the rivers. Against Powhatan's tribes were opposed two smaller confederacies - the Mannahoacks and the Manakins. The Mannahoacks consisted of eight tribes scattered between the Rappahannock and York Rivers, while the Manakins were a union of five tribes who lived above the falls between the York and the James. Besides the confederated Indians, there were the Nottoways, the Meherricks, the Tuteloes, and several other independent tribes.

Although the Indians inhabited a great part of Virginia east of the Blue Ridge, the population was so scattered that it probably did not exceed twenty thousand.81 Powhatan's great domain contained but eight thousand souls, yet the chief was able to hold his own against all his Indian foes. The Virginia Indians east of the mountains where probably numerically superior to the whites until after 1650, 82 though the latter had already been victorious in several wars between the races. During the war following Opechankanough's great massacre of 1622, the white population was reduced from four thousand to twenty-five hundred. In 1644 Opechankanough was the leader in another great massacre, in which five hundred whites perished. This second massacre was swiftly and severely avenged, and the Indians were forced to keep the peace. They were again reduced to peace about thirty years later by Nathaniel Bacon, the leader of the noted rebellion against the tyrannical Governor Berkeley. Bacon's victory so crushed the Indians that they were never again formidable in eastern Virginia.

Beverly's History of Virginia," published in London in 1722, gives a list of such towns

81. Howe, p. 136. 82. A writer of 1649 gives the population of that time as fifteen thousand whites and three hundred Negroes.

or bodies of Indians east of the Blue Ridge as in 1700 retained their names. All of them combined could not muster five hundred fighting men, and they lived miserably and much in fear of the neighboring Indian tribes. Each town, by the articles of peace, 1677, paid an annual tribute of three Indian arrows and twenty beaver skins, for protection.

Beverly mentions twenty towns, distributed as follows: in Accomac there were Matomkin, Gingotoque, Pungoteaque, Kiequotank, Matchopungo, Occahannock, Oanancock, Chiconessex, Nanduye; in Northampton, Gangascoe, almost as numerous as all the preceding put together; in Prince George, Wyanoke, extinct; in Charles City, Appamattox, extinct; in Surry, Nottaway; in Nansemond, Menheering and Nansamond; in King William, Pamunkie and Chickahominie; in Essex, Rappahannock, extinct; in Richmond, Port Tobago, extinct; in Northumberland, Wiccomoco. The spelling of the tribal names just given in Beverly’s. There was no way to determine the spelling except by the sound of the words, hence the same name is often spelled in several ways.

Pungoteque was governed by a queen; and Nanduye was "a seat of the empress," who had "all the nations of the shore under tribute."

From many of these Indian names come names for counties, white towns, bays, inlets, and islands of Virginia. The Potomac River is named after an Indian tribe; Chesapeake Bay, the "Mother of Waters,"83 is an Indian name; and the James River once bore the name Powhatan, in honor of the Indian chief. Nansemond, Accomac, Nottoway, Rappahannock, and Appomattox counties are named after Indian tribes.

Nansemond is in southeast Virginia on the North Carolina border. It is drained by the Nansemond and Blackwater rivers and by Lake Drummond. This county, the ninth oldest in the State, was in existence as early as 1640, for an act was then passed defining its boundaries. It was first called Upper Norfolk, but six years later it took the name "Nansimun." Captain John Smith spelled the name "Nansamund"; Beverly says "Nansamond"; and now it is Nansemond.

Beverly says of the Indian tribe after whom the county and Nansemond River were named: "Nansamond; about thirty bow-men; they have increased much of late."

83. Sec Howe, p. 22.

Accomac County comprises nearly two-thirds of that part of Virginia which lies between the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The name "Accawmacke" was given to all the "Eastern Shore" of Virginia when it became one of the original shires in 1634.84 Nine years later the name was changed to Northampton, but the term "Accomac" was revived in 1672 in the name of the county that was then formed from a part of Northampton. The Accomacs were a tribe of Indians that once inhabited the Eastern Shore.

Accomac and Northampton Counties abound in Indian names. Chincoteague inlet, Matomkin Island and inlet, Onancock and Pangoteague towns pertaining to Accomac; while the Great Machipongo Inlet is off the Northampton coast. Pocomoke sound and river and Assateague bay and island are probably Indian names also.

Nottoway is a small county in southeastern Virginia, and is drained by Nottoway and Appomattox waters. Burkeville, at the junction of the two railroads that traverse the county, is becoming well known for its mineral waters.

The tribe of Indians after whom Nottoway County and river were named is now extinct. Beverly, about 1700, says that the "Nottoways" had about a hundred bowmen, and that they were increasing. Jefferson, in writing ''Virginia Notes," about 1780, says that only a few squaws then remained of the Nottoways.

Rappahannock County is situated in northern Virginia between Fauquier and Madison counties, and takes its name from the river whose headwaters it contains. The river, however, is named from an Indian tribe that once lived along its banks in Essex County. The tribe became extinct before 1700. Richmond and Essex85 counties were known as Rappahannock County before 1692, but the old county was absorbed that year by the two new ones that were formed out of its territory. The new Rappahannock County was not formed until 1831, or one hundred and thirty-nine years after the old county ceased to exist.

Appomattox County, on the south bank of the James, is almost equally distant from the eastern and western extremities of the State. It doubtless takes its name from the river that rises within its borders. The river has the name of an Indian tribe that once lived in Charles City County, but, like the Rappahannocks, the tribe had already become extinct when Beverly wrote his Virginia history.

Powhatan County is named after the noted Indian chief. It lies along the south bank of the James River, which separates it from Goochland. Powhatan County was formerly inhabited by the Manakins, a powerful and warlike Indian tribe; but none remained there in the latter part of the seventeenth century. The seat of their town on James River is still called Manakin Town Ferry.

Powhatan was the most notable of the Indian chiefs whom the early Virginia settlers encountered. Physically, he was remarkably strong and vigorous. Moreover, he was shrewd and courageous; not disheartened by defeat, nor unduly elated by victory. He lived as became a king, and commanded the respect of his subjects. A bodyguard of forty warriors attended him, and a sentry kept watch over his palace by night. One of his homes was on the James, where the city of Richmond now stands. He died in Virginia, April, 1618, at the age of nearly seventy. His daughter, Pocahontas, after whom a West Virginia County was named, had died in England the previous year.

Shenandoah County, in northern Virginia, is separated from West Virginia by the Shenandoah Mountains. It is watered by the North Fork of the Shenandoah River, and has the Massanutten Mountains on its eastern border.

Shenandoah County was organized in 1772, and was named Dunmore in honor of the last colonial governor of Virginia. But Lord Dunmore proved so hateful to the Virginians that they were unwilling that the county should retain his name. In 1777, therefore, the name was changed, and the county was called Shenandoah, after the stream that traverses it. The Indians called the river "Shenandoah," thus signifying that it was the "Beautiful daughter of the stars. 85

84. p. 68. 85. History of Augusta County," by J. Lewis Peyton, p. i. P. 31.

Alleghany County takes the name of the great chain of mountains that forms its western border. The name Alleghany was given to the mountains by the English settlers of the north, who had received it from the Indians. "Appleton's American Cyclopedia" says that Alleghany means "Endless."86 Martin’s "Gazetteer of Virginia," however, gives the meaning "Endless" to the Indian name of Kaatin Chunk, which was what the red men called the Kittatinny or Great North Mountains. Both the Alleghany and Kaatin Chunk mountains might well appear "endless" to ob-servers viewing the two ranges from the val-ley between them. Very possibly, both names mean endless. The mountains might have been named by different tribes, or the words may have been synonyms in the one Indian language; and thus the one English translation might be correct in either case. Alleghany County is watered by the Jackson and Cowpasture Rivers, which unite to form the James a few miles east of the county's border. Roanoke County lies south of Botetourt and Craig and west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It doubtless takes its name from the Roanoke River, which receives most of the county's drainage. Roanoke, Roenoke, or Rawrenoke, in the Indian tongue, signified "shell money."87East of the Blue Ridge the Roanoke River is known as the Staunton until it and the Dan unite in Mecklenburg County to form the larger Roanoke.

86. Howe's "Virginia 87. p. 447.

Four Names from Natural Features Rockbridge, Organized 1778 Bath Organized 1790 Highland, Organized 1847 Craig, Organized 1850

Rockbridge, Bath, Highland, and Craig88 Counties are named from their natural features. Rockbridge is south of Augusta between the Blue Ridge and Great North Mountains, 89 and is drained by the James and North Rivers. Bath is on the West Virginia border, and is separated from Rockbridge by the Great North Mountains. The Jackson and Cowpasture rivers, which unite to form the James in Botetourt, traverse the county and receive most of its drainage. Highland, just north of Bath, makes a sharp projection into West Virginia. The Alleghany Mountains form the western border of both counties.

Highland county is intersected by numerous streams and mountains, and is the watershed that separates the headwaters of the James from some of the sources of the Potomac. In the northwestern part of the county the North Fork of the South Branch of the Potomac rises within about ten miles of the sources of Back Creek, a tributary of Jackson's River, and thus, indirectly, a tributary of the James also.

88. Craig hardly belongs under this head, but it is classed here for convenience. See p. 176. 89. Also called the Shenandoah Mountain.

Craig County lies between Giles and Alleghany on the West Virginia line, and, with the exception of a part drained by Sinking Creek, which flows into the New River, is drained by Craig Creek waters.

Rockbridge takes its name from the celebrated Natural Bridge over Cedar Creek in the southern part of the county. The height, of the bridge from the water to its upper surface is 215 feet, average width 80 feet, length 93 feet, thickness 55 feet. 90 The original bridge tract was granted to Thomas Jefferson in 1774 by King George III. After Jefferson was President, he visited the place and made a survey and map of it. 91 The bridge has long been a place of interest to travelers. Besides Jefferson, Presidents Monroe, Jackson, and Van Buren have visited there. Chief Justice Marshall called it "God's greatest miracle in stone." Henry Clay wrote of "the bridge not made with hands that spans a river carries a highway, and makes two mountains one."

90. Whitehead's "Virginia Handbook," p. 51- . 91. Washington, when a surveyor for Lord Fairfax, visited the bridge and carved his name there. Sec Whitehead, p. 50.

Bath County takes its name from its numerous and remarkable springs and baths. The most celebrated springs are the Warm Sulphur, whose waters have been famed for nearly a century, the Healing, and the Hot. The Warm Sulphur springs are located at Warm Springs, the county seat.

The tradition92 respecting the discovery of the (warm) springs is, that a party of Indians hunting, spent the night in the valley. One of their number discovering the spring, bathed in it, and, being much fatigued, he was induced, by the delicious sensation and warmth imparted by it, to remain all night. The next morning he was enabled to scale the mountain before, his companions. As the country became settled, the fame of the waters gradually extended.

Highland county derives its name from its great elevation, which varies from 1500 to 4500 feet above the sea level. The surface is greatly broken by streams and mountains.

Craig County is named after its chief Stream, Craig's Creek, 93 which merits the name of river, for it drains about four hundred square miles of territory. The stream probably got its name from some hunter or early settler in that region. Craig's Creek rises in Montgomery near Blacksburg, flows through Craig, and empties into the James in the western part of Botetourt County.

92. Howe, p. 185. 93Appleton’s American Cyclopedia."

The Jamestown Exposition and Virginia County Names

Conclusion

It is no part of my task to give an account of the Jamestown Exposition of 1907; but some of the interesting facts and exhibits connected with the Exposition have a direct bearing on persons or places referred to in this work. Of these facts and exhibits, therefore, some mention is not inappropriate.

Of course Norfolk county itself, rich in historic associations, takes pride in the fact that the Exposition was held within her borders; nor does James City County, within which are the ruins of old Jamestown, feel jealous that the better location of her sister county made Norfolk and not James City the seat of the Tercentennial Celebration of the first permanent settlement of the English in America.

Princess Anne County contains Cape Henry, at which are two lighthouses and a wireless telegraphy station. At the foot of the old lighthouse, which dates from 1690, a stone tablet now replaces the old wooden cross raised by the first settlers to mark the spot of their first landing on American soil, April 26, 1907 - seventeen days before the settlement of Jamestown. The old lighthouse is not now in use, being replaced by the some-what taller one of recent date that stands about 200 yards distant and looks down upon her older sister from a height of 1 60 feet.

The Exposition grounds, about four hundred acres in extent, were located at Sewall's Point, which borders on Hampton Roads at the mouth of the James, Elizabeth, and Nansemond rivers, and is six miles north of Norfolk. About two miles west of the grounds occurred the Merrimac-Monitor fight in Hampton Roads.

The architecture of the Tercentennial was entirely colonial, and the names of many of the places about the grounds commemorated colonial days. At the north of the grounds were the Government Twin-piers - 200 feet wide and 800 feet in length, - which, hung with electric lights on every part, presented a most beautiful spectacle at night. These piers and the landing between them were named Susan Constant Pier (on the west). Discovery Landing, and Godspeed Pier (on the east), thus commemorating the names of the three English vessels that brought the first settlers to Jamestown. The harbor within the piers was Smith Harbor.

Prominent among the streets of the Exposition grounds were Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Gilbert, 94 running east and west, while Bacon Street ran north and south. Just south of the government piers was Raleigh Square, and on the eastern part of the grounds were "circles" - really only semi-circles - named after the Colonial governors, Bennet and Spotswood. “Lee's Parade," a thirty-acre field north of the main entrance" to the ground, was used for military maneuvers, and in its name honored the Southern military chieftain.

In the southeastern part of the grounds near Spotswood Circle was the Exposition Hospital, Pocahontas Hospital, in front of Pocahontas Spring, noted in history as the spring used by the Indian princess. Just east of Spotswood Circle, between where the Textile Building and the Silver and Copper Building stood, is the Powhatan Oak, a monster

94. Named after Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who was drowned in 1583 in an unsuccessful attempt to establish an English settlement in North America.

Live oak that was a large tree when the first settlers landed there three hundred years ago.

Full of interest to lovers of history were the contents of some of the State buildings, and especially interesting was the interior of the History Building, where, as the guide-book told us, "there is shown the greatest collection of rare relics and heirlooms of colonial history ever brought together in this country."

Within the Missouri Building there were on the walls two portraits, oil paintings, that were especially interesting to me: on the left, as you enter the building, was the portrait of “Meriwether Lewis, First Governor Missouri Territory, 1 807-1 809"; on the right was a portrait inscribed, "General William Clark, Governor Missouri Territory, 1809-1821."

The Maryland Building was on the outside a reproduction of the house on the Har-wood estate, built in 1802 for his son by Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Within the building was shown a large and handsome harpsichord formerly owned by Carroll, and in a frame with pictures of nine other Maryland men was Carroll's picture also. Large portraits of Charles I and of his queen adorned the walls of the building, and the Pocahontas Memorial Association exhibited two separate portraits of Pocohantas, a picture of her marriage to Rolfe, and a facsimile of Rolfe's request to the Governor of Virginia that he be allowed to marry her.

The Pennsylvania Building was a duplicate of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, and it was most fitting that the portraits of the signers of the Declaration of Independence should hang on the walls of one of the rooms. These portraits, only forty-seven in number, because the portraits of some of the signers were lacking, were taken from Philadelphia. There were excellent portraits of all the signers after whom Virginia named counties - Franklin, Carroll, Wythe, and Thomas Nelson, Jr., for counties within Virginia; and Carter Braxton, Hancock, Jefferson, and Benjamin Harrison for counties within the present State of West Virginia.

Just west of the Auditorium and between Pocahontas and Gilbert streets was the History Building, a permanent colonial structure of 124x129 feet. Many States contributed to make the historic exhibit both interesting and instructive, but Virginia's exhibit was probably the most attractive of them all. To this success the Virginia State Library contributed much by the loan of valuable papers and documents.

The letters and papers were neatly ar-ranged, with printed descriptive labels, in glass cases. Several cases were devoted to letters, etc., of Patrick Henry; in one case were autograph letters of the Virginia governors beginning with Berkeley and going through Dunmore; another case contained letters from all the Virginia signers of the Declaration of Independence - Richard Henry Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Carter Braxton, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Jefferson, and George Wythe. From George Rogers Clark - spelled without a final e -was a letter of October 22, 1782, to the governor of Virginia, and also a letter to the governor from Daniel Boone, August 30, 1782. From Richard Bland there was a letter of August 1, 1771, to Thomas Adams in England.

In one case there was an old newspaper giving a list of "toasts" offered by the House of Burgesses on May 16, 1769. Among those "toasted" were Governor Botetourt and the Duke of Richmond. A second case contained a portrait of the "Right Honorable Norberne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, late Governor of Virginia''; and in another case were three portraits - Sir Thomas Smith, Treasurer of the Colony, 1606-1619; Sir Edwin Sandys; and Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. "These three men," said the printed description by the Virginia Historical Society, "more than any other were influential in the settlement of Virginia."

West Virginia contributed to the History Building a painting of the Battle of Point Pleasant by Captain Joseph Faris.

Near the West Virginia State Building was an exhibit, unique and characteristic of the push and energy of what was until 1863 the western part of the Old Dominion - an obelisk of West Virginia coal, 40x40 feet at the base and 160 feet high. It is laid in obelisk form, a stratum for each county of the State, and illuminated by electric lights, forming an exhibit visible far out at sea."

The Jamestown Exposition is now a thing of the past, and visitors to the grounds would probably find it hard to recognize the place. But the Exposition has not been in vain; it has, we believe, done much for Virginia's one hundred counties, much for the State at large, much for the nation.

CONCLUSION

I have traced the naming of Virginia counties from 1634, when the eight original shires were organized, through the naming of Dickenson County in 1880 - from eight counties to one hundred counties.

The names, as they were given, singly or sometimes in groups, make a record for the historian almost as suggestive as the early Chronicles of the Anglo-Saxons in England. Viewed in the light of the circumstances attending the naming, the names give a picture of thoughts and feelings of the Virginians - a moving picture that begins with colonial Virginia in her loyalty to King James I of England, that continues with Revolutionary Virginian in her devotion to the Father of his Country, and that ends with modern Virginia honoring one of her own sons in the naming of her youngest county.95

95. James City County, organized 1634; Washington county, organized 1776; Dickinson county, organized 1880.

The story of Virginia is the story of the oldest English colony, and in that story we seek and we find a richer heritage of names taken from England than in the story of any other colony. For one hundred and sixty-nine years Virginia was a colony, and during that period fifty-eight of her one hundred counties were organized and named.

Fifty-six of these fifty-eight counties took their names, directly or indirectly, from England. Royal English families contributed twenty-six names, English shires gave twelve, one came from an English island, six were from governors imported into the colony, and ten were from Englishmen of prominence, some of whom never set foot on Virginia soil. One of the fifty-eight names, Dunmore, was afterwards, in 1777, changed to Shenandoah, thus reducing the colonial names of English origin to fifty-five. The other three names were Nansemond, Accomac, and Shenandoah, all Indian. The fifty-five English names were, during the Revolution, increased to fifty-six-fifty-seven, if Greenville County be named after Sir Richard Temple Grenville. It is more than a coincidence that Virginia should have fifty-eight counties named during the colonial period, and that fifty-seven county names should come from England.

The characteristics of the two States, Virginia and West Virginia, mother and daughter, are shown in their county names. Virginia, old and conservative, looked to England for the majority of her county names; West Virginia, young and independent, has, with few exceptions, names of American origin.96 Virginia clings to the spirit of the English cavaliers, and honors the memory of their high-born descendants, men of lofty ideals and noble lives. West Virginia, strong and sturdy, is building a commonwealth rich in material resources and strong in the spirit of self-made men.

Virginia's age is shown by her fifty-seven counties with names from England; West Virginia's youth is shown by the fact that only three counties out of fifty-five - Berkeley, Hampshire, and Raleigh - are taken from England. West Virginia is distinctively American in her county names, Virginia is largely colonial.

Now, while it is true in general that Virginia has had a spirit of deliberation and conservatism, a spirit at times antagonistic to progress, that spirit is, we believe, gradually giving way to one more practical and progressive, a spirit fired by renewed youth and refined by three hundred years of struggle. Virginia is awaking. Nor does West Virginia exhibit solely the marks of rude and pushing youth. Education is beginning to keep pace with oil, and culture is strenuously contending with coal.

Virginia's past is glorious, a precious heritage to all sons of the Old Dominion. Virginia's future, now rosy with promise, lies, under God, in the hands of her sons.

96. Most of the West Virginia counties were named before the new State was formed, however.



BACK

This page was last updated Wednesday, 03-Sep-2014 18:00:04 EDT.
Copyright © 2011~2017 by The Virginia American History and Genealogy Project